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May 2024

  • Netiporn Sanesangkhom May 15, 2024

    “Bung” Netiporn Sanesangkhom

    การเสียชีวิตของบุ้ง ย้ำอีกทีถึงความจำเป็นที่เราค้องพูดเรื่องการปฏิรูปมาตรา 112 อย่างจริงจังได้แล้ว มีคนไทยกี่คนแล้วที่ต้องเสียชีวิตเพราะกฎหมายฉบับนี้

    How many times will the courts allow deaths like these to happen until they’re satisfied ?

  • Mon amour May 10, 2024
  • Sting – Russians May 2, 2024

    Sting – Russians (1985)

April 2024

March 2024

  • We knew that very well March 30, 2024


    We knew that very well, that is why we had chosen homeschooling and you did very well and we could rest nicely.

    จากการสำรวจทางสถิติของ World Population Review พบว่านักเรียนไทยเรียนหนักที่สุดในโลก ด้วยชั่วโมงเรียนเฉลี่ยยาวนานถึง 9.5 ชั่วโมงต่อวัน สูงสุดเป็นอันดับหนึ่ง ต่างจากประเทศที่ระบบการศึกษาก้าวหน้าส่วนใหญ่ที่ใช้เวลาประมาณ 4-6 ชั่วโมงต่อวัน ที่สำคัญคือการเรียนที่นานเกินไปอาจส่งผลให้เกิดความเหนื่อยล้า และอาจทำให้ประสิทธิภาพในการเรียนรู้ลดลงได้

    แต่นอกจากเวลาที่ต้องใช้ไปกับการเรียนในห้องเรียนแล้ว นักเรียนไทยยังต้องใช้เวลาไปกับการทำการบ้านอีกด้วย ถ้าอิงตามกรอบเวลาที่แนะนำของคณะกรรมการการศึกษาขั้นพื้นฐาน นักเรียนไทยจะใช้เวลาต่อวันประมาณ 30 นาทีถึง 1 ชั่วโมงครึ่งในระดับประถม และ 2 ชั่วโมงในระดับมัธยม ซึ่งเมื่อเทียบกับประเทศที่ระบบการศึกษาก้าวหน้าแล้วพบว่ามีเวลาทำการบ้านอยู่ที่ 30-45 นาทีต่อวันเท่านั้น กลายเป็นว่านักเรียนไทยต้องเสียเวลากับการเรียนมากสุดถึง 11.5 ชั่วโมงต่อวันโดยที่ยังไม่รวมเวลาสำหรับการเดินทางไปโรงเรียน

    ทว่าการบ้านที่ถูกมอบหมายไปนั้น กลับไม่สามารถทำได้ตามจุดประสงค์ที่ต้องการ คือให้นักเรียนได้ฝึกฝนทักษะและทบทวน เพื่อเป็นการเสริมสร้างความรู้ความเข้าใจในบทเรียน เพราะเมื่อดูจากการประเมินคะแนน PISA 2022 ครั้งที่ผ่านมา พบว่านักเรียนไทยมีผลคะแนนย่ำแย่ที่สุดในรอบ 20 ปี อาจบอกได้ว่าเวลาที่ใช้ไปกับชั่วโมงเรียนหรือทำการบ้านอย่างมหาศาลนั้น ไม่ได้ทำให้มีผลสัมฤทธิ์ทางการศึกษาที่ดีขึ้นเลย

    นอกจากนี้ การมีการบ้านที่มากเกินไปยังส่งผลเสียต่อสุขภาพจิตของนักเรียนจากความเครียดและความกดดันที่สั่งสม บั่นทอนทั้งสุขภาพกายใจ ทำให้ไม่มีเวลาสำหรับใช้ทำกิจกรรมเพื่อค้นหาตัวตน เพื่อสำรวจความชื่นชอบ และอาจทำให้มีทัศนคติที่ไม่ดีต่อการเรียนอีกด้วย ซึ่งจะส่งผลเสียมากที่สุดในเด็กเล็ก เพราะเด็กในช่วงวัยนี้ยังไม่มีทักษะเพียงพอและจำเป็นต้องได้รับการสนับสนุนที่ดี

    ยกตัวอย่างประเทศที่ให้ความสำคัญกับเวลาในการสะสางภาระงานของนักเรียน อย่างประเทศฟินแลนด์ ได้มีการกำหนดไว้ในพระราชบัญญัติการศึกษาขั้นพื้นฐาน มาตรา 24 ว่าด้วยภาระงานของนักเรียนไว้ในวรรคหนึ่งว่า นักเรียนจะต้องมีเวลาเพียงพอในการพักผ่อน เข้าร่วมกิจกรรมสันทนาการและทำงานอดิเรกที่นอกเหนือไปจากเวลาที่ใช้ในโรงเรียน

    อย่างไรก็ตาม ที่่ผ่านมารัฐบาลไทยก็พยายามที่จะแก้ไขปัญหาและคอยออกแนวปฏิบัติที่ผลักดันให้ลดปริมาณการบ้านและเวลาที่ใช้การเรียนของนักเรียนลงอยู่บ้าง ด้วยนโยบายที่คงคุ้นหูใครหลาย ๆ คนอย่าง “ลดเวลาเรียน เพิ่มเวลารู้”กระนั้นก็ได้มีข้อคิดเห็นจากนักวิชาการว่าแนวปฏิบัติลดการบ้านนักเรียนของไทยเป็นนโยบายที่ทำไม่ได้จริงในระยะยาว โดยศาสตราจารย์สมพงษ์ จิตระดับ อดีตอาจารย์คณะครุศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย ได้ทำการให้สัมภาษณ์กับทางไทยพีบีเอสไว้ว่า

    “การแก้ปัญหาการบ้านจำเป็นต้องปรับที่ระบบการสอนและปรับกลุ่มสาระวิชาซึ่งเป็นการปฏิรูปโครงสร้างทางการศึกษา ซึ่งการสั่งให้ลดปริมาณการบ้านอย่างเดียวยังไม่ตอบโจทย์ข้อนี้ ดังนั้นแล้ว ปัญหาภาระงานจากการศึกษาของนักเรียนไทยจะยังไม่หมดไป ถ้าไม่ได้แก้ไขที่ต้นตอ

    ด้วยเหตุนี้ สิ่งที่รัฐบาลไทยควรแก้ไขจึงไม่ใช่แค่การสั่งการด้วยนโยบายจากเบื้องบน แต่จำเป็นต้องทบทวนรูปแบบการเรียนการสอนกันใหม่ ก่อนที่ปัญหาความเหนื่อยล้าสะสมของนักเรียนจะทวีความรุนแรงมากขึ้น จนไม่ได้กระทบแค่ผลการเรียนที่ตกลง แต่เป็นทัศนคติเชิงลบต่อการเรียน เมื่อเด็กไม่อยากเรียนแล้ว ต่อให้การบ้านจะน้อยแค่ไหน ก็คงไม่อาจช่วยอะไรให้ดีขึ้นได้

  • Dzogchen March 19, 2024

  • 2475 Dawn of Revolution March 16, 2024
  • Mozart (Music) March 3, 2024

February 2024

  • What happens to the heart (Music) February 26, 2024

    You are not forgotten Harry.

    Lyrics:

    I was always working steady
    But I never called it art
    I got my shit together
    Meeting Christ and reading Marx
    It failed my little fire
    But it’s bright the dying spark
    Go tell the young messiah
    What happens to the heart

    There’s a mist of summer kisses
    Where I tried to double-park
    The rivalry was vicious
    The women were in charge
    It was nothing, it was business
    But it left an ugly mark
    I’ve come here to revisit
    What happens to the heart

    I was selling holy trinkets
    I was dressing kind of sharp
    Had a pussy in the kitchen
    And a panther in the yard

    In the prison of the gifted
    I was friendly with the guards
    So I never had to witness
    What happens to the heart

    I should have seen it coming
    After all I knew the chart
    Just to look at her was trouble
    It was trouble from the start
    Sure we played a stunning couple
    But I never liked the part
    It ain’t pretty, it ain’t subtle
    What happens to the heart

    Now the angel’s got a fiddle
    The devil’s got a harp
    Every soul is like a minnow
    Every mind is like a shark
    I’ve broken every window
    But the house, the house is dark
    I care but very little
    What happens to the heart

    Then I studied with this beggar
    He was filthy, he was scarred
    By the claws of many women
    He had failed to disregard
    No fable here no lesson
    No singing meadowlark
    Just a filthy beggar guessing
    What happens to the heart

    I was always working steady
    But I never called it art
    It was just some old convention
    Like the horse before the cart
    I had no trouble betting
    On the flood, against the ark
    You see, I knew about the ending
    What happens to the heart

    I was handy with a rifle
    My father’s .303
    I fought for something final
    Not the right to disagree

  • I do not forget our struggle February 3, 2024

    I do not forget you, I do not forget our struggle

November 2023

  • อำนาจนิยม (Authoritarianism) November 3, 2023


    “อำนาจนิยม” เป็นประหนึ่งศัพท์แสงที่ใช้กันอย่างแพร่หลาย เราสามารถพบคำ ๆ นี้ได้ตามหนังสือพิมพ์ การปราศรัยในการชุมนุม หรือแม้กระทั่งการอภิปรายญัตติต่าง ๆ ในรัฐสภา และคำว่า “อำนาจนิยม” ก็เป็นคำที่ทรงพลังเสมอมา วันนี้ นักเรียนเลวขอพาทุกคนย้อนกลับไปในห้วงประวัติศาสตร์เพื่อทำความเข้าใจและรู้เท่าทันอำนาจนิยมไปด้วยกัน

    “อำนาจนิยม” เป็นศัพท์บัญญัติจากคำว่า “Authoritarianism” สารานุกรมบริแทนนิกาได้ให้ความหมายของคำว่า “Authoritarianism” ไว้ว่า “การยอมรับอำนาจอย่างถึงที่สุด และการกดขี่เสรีภาพทางความคิดและการกระทำของปัจเจกบุคคล (the blind submission to authority and the repression of individual freedom of thought and action)”

    แนวคิดอำนาจนิยมเป็นแนวคิดที่มีมาอย่างยาวนาน แต่หนึ่งในช่วงเวลาที่แนวคิดนี้ปรากฏเด่นชัดที่สุดคือช่วงกลางศตวรรษที่ 20 หรือช่วงยุคสงครามโลกครั้งที่ 2 ผ่านลิทธิฟาสซิสต์ ลิทธินี้เป็นแนวคิดที่เชื่อในความเป็นระเบียบของสังคมด้วยการนำของผู้นำที่เข้มแข็งและสามารถนำประเทศไปสู่ความเจริญได้ ถือเป็นรูปแบบของระบอบเผด็จการเบ็ดเสร็จรูปแบบหนึ่ง และแนวคิดนี้ก็ได้แพร่กระจายไปทั่วโลกผ่านการทำสงครามของฝ่ายฝ่ายอักษะในยุโรป ได้แก่ อิตาลี นำโดยเบนิโต มุสโสลินี และนาซีเยอรมัน นำโดยอดอล์ฟ ฮิตเลอร์

    แนวคิดแบบนี้มีมานานแล้ว แต่ในบริบทของโลกปัจจุบัน ก็คงไม่มียุคใดที่ส่งผลต่อแนวคิดนี้เท่าช่วงกลางคริสตศตวรรษที่ 20 อีกแล้ว แนวคิดฟาสซิสต์ ซึ่งให้ความสำคัญกับการอุทิศชีวิตเพื่อประเทศชาติ แพร่กระจายไปทั่วทวีปยุโรป พวกเสื้อดำของมุโสลินีครองเมือง พรรคนาซีปกครองเยอรมนีด้วยกำปั้นเหล็ก (iron fist) ซึ่งแนวคิดฟาสซิสต์นี้ก็ส่งอิทธิพลมาถึงไทยด้วย โดยเฉพาะในสมัยจอมพล ป. พิบูลสงคราม แต่หลังเขาหมดอำนาจไปแนวคิดนี้ก็ไม่เคยหาย รัฐบาลเผด็จการที่ตามมาก็ยังคงยึดหลักการอำนาจนิยมสืบเป็นทอด ๆ

    ตั้งแต่สมัยรัฐบาลสมบูรณาญาสิทธิราชย์ก็ไม่ได้ต่อต้านแนวคิดฟาสซิสต์เสียทีเดียว ซ้ำยังดูเปิดรับ (open to the idea) อีก แต่โชคดีที่การปฏิวัติ 2475 เข้ามาหยุดยั้งความคิดเรื่องฟาสซิสต์ไปชั่วคราว แต่แนวคิดนี้ก็หาได้ตายไปในไทย รัฐบาลของ จอมพล ป. พิบูลสงคราม ก็ออกแบบการปกครองโดยเลียนแบบอิตาลีภายใต้มุโสลินี

    รัฐบาลของจอมพล ป. ใช้คำอธิบายแบบเสรีประชาธิปไตยมาปกครองในลักษณะค่อนไปทางฟาสซิสต์ นโยบายหลาย ๆ อย่างก็ออกแนวอำนาจนิยม อย่างรัฐนิยมที่บังคับให้คนไทยแต่งกายแบบสากลนิยม การบังคับกิจวัฏประจำวันคน หลายอย่างก็ออกแนวฟาสซิสต์ต่อต้าน “ชาวต่างชาติ” ไปเลย เช่น การสงวนอาชีพให้กับคนไทย เป็นต้น

    แต่หลังเกิดเหตุการณ์ 6 ตุลาฯ รัฐบาลเผด็จการก็เริ่มฝังอำนาจนิยมเพิ่มเข้าไปในการศึกษามากขึ้นกว่าเผด็จการสมัยก่อน ๆ เพื่อทำลายอำนาจของนักเรียนนักศึกษา ทำให้ในสังคมไทยนั้นเต็มไปด้วยแนวคิดอำนาจนิยม ตั้งแต่ต้องเชื่อฟังครูโดยไม่หืออือ ต้องยอมรับการเฆี่ยนตีโดยผู้ปกครองโดยไม่หืออือ หรือต้องยอมรับการริดรอนสิทธิโดยรัฐบาล

    ทั้งหมดนี้สร้างสังคมที่คนโดยมากสยบยอมต่ออำนาจ เห็นได้จากแนวคิดเรื่องอยู่เป็น คนไทยโดยมากยอม “อยู่เป็น” เลือกที่จะไม่หือไม่อือ พ่อแม่มักสอนลูกว่าอย่ามาทำกิจกรรมทางการเมือง ให้ลูก “อยู่เป็น” คนไทยมีความเข้าใจในปัญหาทางสังคม ว่าสังคมบิดเบี้ยว สังคมไม่ได้มีเสรีภาพที่แท้จริง แต่กลับเลือกที่จะ “อยู่เป็น” อยู่เฉย ๆ ทำมาหากินเลี้ยงชีพไปวัน ๆ สังคมจะเป็นตายร้ายดีอย่างไรก็เพียงวิพากษ์วิจารณ์ไปเท่านั้น

    อำนาจนิยมในสถานศึกษา ไม่ว่าจะเป็นการใช้ความรุนแรง การสั่งสอนให้ไม่หืออือกับครู ถูกสอนว่าครูถูกต้องเสมอ การบังคับทรงผมการแต่งกาย ฯลฯ ทั้งหมดนี้ก่อร่างสภาพแวดล้อมที่นักเรียนไม่รู้สึกปลอดภัย เป็นสภาวะที่ถูกกดขี่ ทำให้นักเรียนไม่กล้าแสดงออก อย่าว่าแต่การลุกขึ้นมาแสดงออกทางการเมืองเลย สภาพแวดล้อมในโรงเรียนไม่เอื้อต่อการต่อสู้เพื่อผลประโยชน์ของตัวนักเรียนเองด้วยซ้ำ

    สภาพแวดล้อมที่ปลอดภัยและไร้ความหวังสำหรับความเปลี่ยนแปลงนั้นย่อมส่งผลต่อตัวนักเรียนแน่นอน บรรยากาศแบบนั้นยิ่งส่งเสริมค่านิยม “อยู่เป็น” ในเมื่อตั้งแต่เด็ก คนเราก็มาพบความจริงว่าการแสดงออกนำไปสู่การลงโทษและความเปลี่ยนแปลงถูกระงับยับยั้งด้วยโครงสร้างอำนาจนิยมที่ไม่ยอมเปลี่ยน คนเราจะสู้เพื่อความเปลี่ยนแปลงไปทำไม

    สังคมแบบนี้ไม่ใช่สังคมที่ดีต่อเด็ก สังคมแบบนี้คือสังคมที่ปล่อยให้อาชญากรลอยนวลพ้นผิด ตั้งแต่ครูล่วงละเมิดทางเพศเด็กไปจนถึงทหารที่ทำรัฐประหาร สังคมแบบนี้สร้างบาดแผลให้เด็กเป็นหมื่นเป็นแสน โดยที่โดยมากเด็กเหล่านั้นไม่ได้การชดเชยอะไรเลย และพฤติกรรมที่สร้างบาดแผลดังกล่าวก็ได้รับอนุญาตให้ดำเนินต่อไป หากย้อนกลับไปดูกรณีตัวอย่างจากนิทรรศการ ครูคือใคร ที่นักเรียนเลวเคยจัดในช่วงวันครูเมื่อต้นปีจะพบว่าอำนาจนิยมฝังรากลึกเสียจนการทำผิดมหรรต์กลับได้รับโทษกระจิดริด ไม่ได้สัดส่วนกับความผิด และโดยมากครูก็ยังคงได้สอนต่อไป ได้มีโอกาสสร้างบาดแผลต่อไป

    สังคมไทยไม่ควรดำเนินต่อไปแบบนี้ สังคมไทยต้องรื้อระบอบอำนาจนิยม

October 2023

September 2023

  • Children like this September 9, 2023

    “เด็กแบบนี้ไม่ควรได้รับสิทธิอะไรเลย”
    “ทำตัวแบบนี้แล้วยังจะมาถามหาสิทธิอีกเหรอ”

    นี่อาจเป็นความคิดของหลาย ๆ คนที่มีต่อเด็กที่ไม่ใช่ “เด็กดี” ตามขนบของสังคมที่ออกมาเรียกร้องสิทธิอะไรบางอย่าง หลายคนต้องการให้ “เด็กดี” ได้รับสิทธิของตน แต่กลับไม่อยากให้เด็กที่พวกเขามองว่าเป็น “เด็กเลว” หรือ “เด็กก้าวร้าว” ได้รับสิทธินั้นด้วย ความคิดเหล่านี้สะท้อนถึงปัญหาความไม่เข้าใจหลักการของสิทธิมนุษยชนที่เป็นหลักพื้นฐานที่ทุกคนมีโดยเสมอหน้ากันไม่ว่า “ดี” หรือ “เลว”

    ปฏิญญาสากลว่าด้วยสิทธิมนุษยชนข้อที่ 2 ระบุไว้ว่า “ทุกคนย่อมมีสิทธิและอิสรภาพทั้งปวงตามที่กำหนดไว้ในปฏิญญานี้ โดยปราศจากการแบ่งแยกไม่ว่าชนิดใดอาทิ เชื้อชาติ ผิว เพศ ภาษา ศาสนา ความคิดเห็นทางการเมืองหรือทางอื่น พื้นเพทางชาติหรือสังคม ทรัพย์สิน กำเนิดหรือสถานะอื่น นอกเหนือจากนี้ จะไม่มีการแบ่งแยกใด บนพื้นฐานของสถานะทางการเมือง ทางกฎหมาย หรือทางการระหว่างประเทศของประเทศหรือดินแดนที่บุคคลสังกัด ไม่ว่าดินแดนนี้จะเป็นเอกราช อยู่ในความพิทักษ์ มิได้ปกครองตนเองหรืออยู่ภายใต้การจำกัดอธิปไตยอื่นใด”

    สิทธิมนุษยชนมีลักษณะเฉพาะคือเป็นสิ่งที่ติดตัวมนุษย์มาแต่กำเนิด มีความเป็นสากล ไม่สามารถถูกพรากไปหรือยกให้แก่กันได้ และไม่สามารถแบ่งแยกได้ นั่นหมายความว่าทุกคนไม่ว่า “ดี” หรือ “เลว” มีสิทธิมนุษยชนที่จะต้องได้รับการคุ้มครอง การจะบอกว่าใครควรมีหรือไม่มีสิทธินั้นขัดกับหลักการของสิทธิมนุษยชน เพราะสิทธิมนุษยชนคุ้มครองทุกคนโดยไม่แบ่งแยก

    หากมองในมุมของการเรียกร้องสิทธิมนุษยชน การเรียกร้องสิทธิมนุษยชนไม่ใช่การ “ร้องขอ” แต่เป็นการ “ทวงคืน” สิทธิที่ถูกพรากไป เราต้องยึดหลักการที่ว่าทุกคนมีสิทธิมนุษยชนและรัฐที่มีหน้าที่ในการเคารพ ปกป้อง และเติมเต็มสิทธิมนุษยชนของพวกเขา ดังนั้นไม่ว่าใครจะเป็นผู้เรียกร้องหรือเรียกร้องด้วยวิธีใดก็ไม่สามารถปฏิเสธได้ว่ารัฐยังมีหน้าที่เหล่านั้นอยู่นั่นเอง

    นอกจากปฏิญญาสากลว่าด้วยสิทธิมนุษยชนแล้ว อนุสัญญาว่าด้วยสิทธิเด็กนั้นก็คุ้มครองสิทธิของเด็กทุกคนและรัฐก็มีหน้าที่ในการดำเนินการให้เด็กได้รับการคุ้มครองสิทธิเช่นเดียวกัน โดยได้ระบุไว้ดังนี้

    1. รัฐภาคีจะเคารพและประกันสิทธิตามที่กำหนดไวในอนุสัญญาน้ี แก่เด็กแต่ละคนที่อยู่ในเขตอำนาจของตน โดยปราศจากการเลือกปฏิบัติไม่ว่าชนิดใด ๆ โดยไม่คำนึงถึง เชื้อชาติ สีผิว เพศ ภาษา ศาสนา ความคิดเห็นทางการเมืองหรือทางอื่น ต้นกำเนิดทางชาติชาติพันธุ์ หรือสังคม ทรัพย์สิน ความทุพพลภาพ การเกิดหรือสถานะอื่น ๆ ของเด็ก หรือบิดา มารดา หรือผู้ปกครองตามกฎหมาย

    2. รัฐภาคีจะดำเนินมาตรการที่เหมาะสมทั้งปวง เพื่อที่จะประกันว่าเด็กได้รับการคุ้มครองจากการเลือกปฏิบัติ หรือการลงโทษในทุกรูปแบบ บนพ้ืนฐานของสถานภาพ กิจกรรมความคิดเห็นที่แสดงออกหรือความเชื่อของบิดา มารดา ผู้ปกครองตามกฎหมาย หรือสมาชิกในครอบครัวของเด็ก

    หลักการขั้นพื้นฐานของสิทธิคือการคุ้มครองทุกคนอย่างเสมอหน้ากัน เด็ก “ก้าวร้าว” ก็ต้องได้รับการคุ้มครองสิทธิโดยไม่แบ่งแยก เราควรยึดมั่นในหลักที่ว่าเด็กทุกคนมีสิทธิที่ต้องได้รับการคุ้มครองไม่ว่าเขาจะถูกมองว่าเป็น “เด็กดี” หรือ “เด็กเลว” ก็ตาม

August 2023

  • Authoritarianism in school August 29, 2023


    อำนาจนิยมในโรงเรียนแทรกซึมอยู่ในทุกหนแห่ง ไม่เว้นแม้แต่วงโยธวาทิต ชวนทุกคนไปอ่านเรื่องราวของ “มะขาม” อดีตนักเรียนวงโยฯ ของโรงเรียนแห่งหนึ่ง ที่ความฝันการเป็นนักดนตรีถูกกลืนกินด้วยวัฒนธรรมอำนาจนิยม แม้ว่าในปัจจุบันมะขามจะจบออกจากระบบการศึกษาแล้ว แต่เหตุการณ์ต่าง ๆ ที่มะขามได้เผชิญจากการอยู่วงโยฯ ตั้งแต่สมัยประถมฯ จนถึง ม.ต้น ก็ยังคงหลอกหลอนเธอมาจนถึงทุกวันนี้

    Q: เคยเจออำนาจนิยมอะไรในโรงเรียนบ้าง เล่าให้ฟังหน่อย
    A: ตั้งแต่ประถมฯ จนถึง ม.ต้น เราเรียนในโรงเรียนที่จุกจิกกับเครื่องแบบและทรงผมมาก โรงเรียนนี้เขาจะบังคับถักเปียสองข้าง เวลาตรวจระเบียบก็จะให้เด็กแกะเปียให้ดู เราก็ไม่เข้าใจว่าจะทำไปทำไม แล้วก็ครูบางคนก็ชอบใช้อำนาจ เช่น ให้เด็กเดินเข่าเข้าหา ถ้าจะเดินไปที่โต๊ะครูโดยไม่คลานเข้าเข้าไปก็จะโดนไล่ออกมาแล้วให้เด็กคลานเข่าเข้าไปใหม่ กว่าเราจะมาได้อิสระบ้างก็เพิ่งจะตอน ม.ปลาย นี่เอง อ้อ อีกเรื่องหนึ่งที่เจอคืออำนาจนิยมในวงโยฯ ด้วย อันนี้แย่มาก ๆ เราทั้งโดนว้าก โดนทำโทษ โดนทำร้ายร่างกาย นึกถึงยังรู้สึกแย่อยู่เลย

    Q: พอจะขยายความเรื่องอำนาจนิยมในวงโยโรงเรียนที่พูดถึงได้ไหม ตอนนั้นมันกันอะไรขึ้น
    A: ต้องเกริ่นก่อนว่าเราเล่นดนตรีในวงโยธวาทิตมาตั้งแต่ประถมฯ เอาเข้าจริงแม้แต่ตอนประถมฯ มันก็มีอำนาจนิยมแล้ว มีระบบอาวุโส มีกฎรุ่นน้องต้องไหว้รุ่นพี่ ครูกับรุ่นพี่ก็ชอบสั่งทำโทษด้วยสาเหตุแปลก ๆ ไร้สาระ เช่น ถ้าทำ mouthpiece (ปากเป่าเครื่องดนตรี) ตกพื้น จะโดนสั่งวิ่งรอบสนาม ถ้ามาสายก็จะให้วิ่งหรือลุกนั่ง หรือถ้าเดินแถวไม่ตรงก็จะโดนให้วิดพื้น แต่ตอนนั้นด้วยความที่เรายังเด็ก เราเลยโดนระบบปลูกฝังให้ใช้อำนาจข่มรุ่นน้อง ตอน ป. 6 ยังเคยบังคับให้น้อง ป. 3 ไหว้เลย นึกย้อนไปคืออยากเขกกะโหลกตัวเองจริง ๆ พอเราจบประถมฯ แล้วเราก็ย้ายโรงเรียน ได้มีโอกาสเล่นวงโยอีกทีตอน ม. 2 ตอนนั้นแหละที่มันแย่มาก ๆ เราโดนตั้งแต่ลงโทษด้วยเหตุผลแปลก ๆ จนไปถึงโดนทำร้ายร่างกาย ในวงโยฯ จะมีพี่สตาฟศิษย์เก่าคนหนึ่งที่เรียนจบไปหลายปีแล้ว เขาชอบสั่งทำโทษแล้วก็ชอบว้าก ทั้งด่ากราดทั้งขึ้นมึงกู ถ้าเดินแถวไม่ได้หรือไม่ตรงก็จะโดนสั่งกระโดดตบ วิดพื้น หรือไม่ก็วิ่ง เวลาซ้อมเดินสวนสนามถ้ามีใครทำไม่ได้ คนอื่นก็โดนสั่งลงโทษไปด้วย ตัวเราเคยโดนเขาเตะเพราะเดินไม่ตรงแถว ส่วนเพื่อนเรา ตอนโรงเรียนประกาศผลคะแนน ถ้าสอบตกก็จะโดนสตาฟคนนั้นเรียกไปตี เราก็ไม่เข้าใจว่าสอบตกแล้วจะตีทำไม มันไม่เกี่ยวอะไรกับวงโยเลย คือเหมือนเขาแค่อยากใช้อำนาจ ส่วนเรื่องบังคับไหว้รุ่นพี่ก็ยังมีเหมือนเดิม แล้วก็เราเคยได้ยินมาว่ามีรุ่นพี่โดนต่อยด้วย คือมันแย่มากจริง ๆ นะ นึกสภาพโดนว้าก โดนด่า โดนสั่งวิ่งแทบทุกวันดูสิ เสียสุขภาพจิต

    Q: แล้วเราทนตรงนั้นมาได้ยังไง เราทำยังไงกับเหตุการณ์ที่เกิดขึ้น
    A: ก็ไม่ทนอะสิ หลังจากโดนเตะ สองวันต่อมาเราขอครูลาออกโดยใช้เหตุผลว่าเรียนหนัก ซ้อมเลิกเย็น มีปัญหากับผู้ปกครอง ก็เลยพ้นมาได้ ตอนนั้นเรายังไม่รู้จักคำว่าอำนาจนิยมเลยนะ ยอมโดนสั่งวิ่ง วิดพื้น ทนโดนว้ากโดนด่า แค่ไม่โอเคที่เขามาเตะเรา ถึงจะไม่แรงมากแต่มันก็เป็นการทำร้ายร่างกายอะ เราเลยแบบไม่เอาแล้ว ไม่ทนแล้ว

    Q: แล้วสตาฟคนนั้นโดนลงโทษอะไรไหม
    A: เท่าที่รู้ไม่มีนะ คนในวงรักก็เขามากด้วย ไม่รู้ว่าตอนนี้เขายังมีอำนาจในโรงเรียนหรือยังทำแบบนี้อยู่หรือเปล่า คือตอนที่เราโดนก็ผ่านมาหลายปีแล้ว แต่จริง ๆ เขาสมควรถูกดำเนินคดีด้วยซ้ำ

    Q: ที่บอกว่า “คนในวงรักเขามาก” คิดว่าทำไมมันถึงเป็นแบบนั้น
    A: เพราะระบบวงโยเป็นระบบรุ่นพี่สอนรุ่นน้อง มันทำให้มีเรื่องความเป็นรุ่นพี่-รุ่นน้องเข้ามาเกี่ยวข้องอยู่แล้ว พอรุ่นพี่ใช้อำนาจเสร็จแล้วบอกว่ามันเป็นการฝึก เหมือนตบหัวแล้วลูบหลัง คนก็จะมองเขาเหมือนผู้ใหญ่ที่ดุด่าเด็กเพื่อให้เด็กได้ดีประมาณนี้อะ แต่จริง ๆ มันไม่ใช่เลย ความรุนแรงก็คือความรุนแรง ถึงจะอ้างว่าทำเพราะหวังดี ยังไงมันก็เป็นความรุนแรงอยู่ดี

    Q: รู้สึกยังไงกับเหตุการณ์ที่เกิดขึ้น
    A: เรารู้สึกผิดกับเรื่องสมัยประถมฯ นะเพราะเราเคยเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของระบบนี้ ส่วนเรื่องตอน ม.ต้น ตอนนี้เรารู้สึกว่าเราเป็นเหยื่อและเราอยากให้โลกรู้ว่าอำนาจนิยมในวงโยฯ มีอยู่จริง แม้ว่าเด็กวงโยฯ โรงเรียนอื่นอาจจะไม่ได้โดนเหมือนเรา แต่ไม่ได้แปลว่าเรื่องนี้ไม่เคยเกิดขึ้น เราใช้เวลาหลายปีเลยกว่าจะตระหนักได้ว่าเราเป็นเหยื่อและเราถูกลิดรอนศักดิ์ศรีความเป็นมนุษย์ ตอนนั้นเราไม่กล้าบอกใครว่าเราโดนเขาเตะเพราะไม่อยากให้ผู้ปกครองเราเอาเรื่อง เราไม่อยากมีปัญหา พอเราลาออกเรารู้สึกผิดอยู่นานมากเพราะคิดว่าตัวเองไม่อดทนพอ แต่พอโตขึ้นรู้อะไรมากขึ้น ก็คิดได้ว่าทำไมเราต้องทนวะ

    Q: คิดว่ามีคนอื่นที่เผชิญสถานการณ์คล้าย ๆ เราไหม อยากบอกอะไรกับเขา
    A: คิดว่ามีนะ อยากบอกว่าเราไม่ต้องทนกับอะไรอย่างนี้เลย อย่ายอมให้ใครมาทำร้ายเรา อย่ามองว่าความรุนแรงเป็นเรื่องปกติ ถ้าวันหนึ่งเรากลายเป็นรุ่นพี่ ถ้าเราไม่ชอบโดนทำโทษ ก็อย่าไปสั่งทำโทษรุ่นน้อง อย่าเป็นส่วนหนึ่งที่ทำให้ระบบนี้ดำรงอยู่เด็ดขาด

  • Police General Sereepisuth Temeeyaves August 4, 2023

    “บรรดาม็อบทั้งหลายจะทำอะไรต้องคิดให้เป็น เสร็จแล้วก็เดินสะบัดก้น ผมเห็นแล้วมันทุเรศ โดยเฉพาะเด็กหญิงหยก ที่ไม่เชื่อฟังครูบาอาจารย์ ปีนกำแพง ไม่ใส่เสื้อผ้าชุดนักเรียน ผมสงสารแม่เขานะ แม่เขาเนี่ยเข้าใจ แม่เขาเข้าใจปัญหา แม่เขาสอน ก็ไม่เชื่อฟังแม่เลย ทำตัวเป็นอะไรก็ไม่รู้ ถ้าเป็นลูกผมเนี่ยไม่ได้หรอก ผมฆ่าทิ้งเลย เอาจริง ๆ เด็กแบบนี้ไว้ได้ที่ไหน”

    พล.ต.อ.เสรีพิศุทธ์ เตมียเวส
    หัวหน้าพรรคเสรีรวมไทย
    3 สิงหาคม พ.ศ.2566

  • Cancel senators August 3, 2023

July 2023

  • We will not lose hope July 21, 2023

  • Birthday 2023 July 21, 2023

    Today is your birthday.
    We shall meet again.

  • Yulia Mahr and Max Richter July 20, 2023

    It’s been so long now.
    Where are you ?

  • การเดินทางของแร็พต้านเผด็จการ July 17, 2023
  • John Dowland July 13, 2023
  • U. Srinivas July 13, 2023
  • Une petite musique de 1973. July 11, 2023

June 2023

May 2023

April 2023

  • I will always love you April 29, 2023

    I will always love you.
    Even if one day before we meet again,
    I go to the the sky,
    I will always love you.

  • Tonada del Cabestrero – Simón Díaz April 11, 2023

    Oh dear, so long we did not see each other, so long time now. Teddy is always Teddy.

  • Wagner – Tannhäuser (Overture) April 11, 2023
  • La vie est belle April 5, 2023

    La vie est belle,
    La mort est naturelle.

  • L’Invitation au Voyage April 2, 2023

    L’Invitation au Voyage

    Charles Baudelaire

    Mon enfant, ma sœur,
    Songe à la douceur
    D’aller là-bas vivre ensemble !
    Aimer à loisir,
    Aimer et mourir
    Au pays qui te ressemble !
    Les soleils mouillés
    De ces ciels brouillés
    Pour mon esprit ont les charmes
    Si mystérieux
    De tes traîtres yeux,
    Brillant à travers leurs larmes.

    Là, tout n’est qu’ordre et beauté,
    Luxe, calme et volupté.

    Des meubles luisants,
    Polis par les ans,
    Décoreraient notre chambre ;
    Les plus rares fleurs
    Mêlant leurs odeurs
    Aux vagues senteurs de l’ambre,
    Les riches plafonds,
    Les miroirs profonds,
    La splendeur orientale,
    Tout y parlerait
    À l’âme en secret
    Sa douce langue natale.

    Là, tout n’est qu’ordre et beauté,
    Luxe, calme et volupté.

    Vois sur ces canaux
    Dormir ces vaisseaux
    Dont l’humeur est vagabonde ;
    C’est pour assouvir
    Ton moindre désir
    Qu’ils viennent du bout du monde.
    – Les soleils couchants
    Revêtent les champs,
    Les canaux, la ville entière,
    D’hyacinthe et d’or ;
    Le monde s’endort
    Dans une chaude lumière.

    Là, tout n’est qu’ordre et beauté,
    Luxe, calme et volupté.

    Charles Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal (1857)

March 2023

February 2023

  • Wild is the wind February 28, 2023

    Love me, love me, love me, say you do
    Let me fly away with you
    For my love is like the wind
    And wild is the wind
    Give me more than one caress
    Satisfy this hungriness
    Let the wind blow through your heart
    For wild is the wind
    You touch me
    I hear the sound of mandolins
    You kiss me
    With your kiss my life begins
    You’re spring to me
    All things to me
    Don’t you know you’re life itself
    Like a leaf clings to a tree
    Oh my darling, cling to me
    For we’re creatures of the wind
    And wild is the wind
    So wild is the wind
    You touch me
    I hear the sound of mandolins
    You kiss me
    With your kiss my life begins
    Daddy, you’re spring to me
    All things to me
    Don’t you know you’re life itself
    Like a leaf clings to a tree
    Oh my darling, cling to me
    For we’re creatures of the wind
    And wild is the wind
    So wild is the wind
    Wild is the wind
    Wild is the wind
    Wild is the wind

  • I Laid Down in the Snow February 6, 2023

January 2023

  • Thai school haircut rule January 31, 2023


    กฎทรงผมถูกยกเลิกฟ้าผ่า โดยตรีนุช เทียนทอง รัฐมนตรีว่าการกระทรวงศึกษาธิการในช่วงไม่กี่เดือนก่อนจะเลือกตั้งใหญ่ แต่ภายใต้การยกเลิกกฎทรงผมของตรีนุชพยายามขายฝันนั้น กำลังทำให้หัวของเด็กไทยถูกกลืนกินไปมากกว่าเดิม
    จากเหตุการณ์ในวันนี้ที่ ตรีนุช เทียนทอง ได้ลงนามยกเลิกกฎทรงผมของกระทรวงฯ และโยนอำนาจการออกกฎทรงผมไปไว้ที่โรงเรียน แสดงให้เห็นว่าตรีนุช ไม่ได้มีความต้องการที่จะทำให้เสรีทรงผมเกิดขึ้นในโรงเรียน และกำลังพยายามทำให้นักเรียนถูกบังคับตัดผมอย่างหนักหน่วงขึ้น
    ที่ผ่านมา ถึงแม้จะมีกฎทรงผมของกระทรวงฯ บังคับใช้อยู่ แต่หลายโรงเรียนก็ยังบังคับนักเรียนตัดผมเป็นว่าเล่น จนเกิดการต่อสู้เรียกร้องขึ้นมากมาย ในวันนี้ที่กฎทรงผมของกระทรวงถูกยกเลิกไป ยิ่งทำให้โรงเรียนได้ใจและบังคับนักเรียนตัดผมได้อย่างอิสระโดยไร้การควบคุม
    เราไม่ควรยินดีกับการยกเลิกกฎทรงผมในครั้งนี้ เพราะสิ่งที่ตรีนุชกำลังทำไม่ใช่ “เสรีทรงผม” แต่คือ “สุญญากาศกฎทรงผม” การกระทำเช่นนี้เปิดทางให้โรงเรียนตั้งกฎทรงผมตามใจชอบ
    และถึงแม้จะต้องหาข้อตกลงระหว่างผู้ปกครองกับโรงเรียนเหมือนในกฎที่พึ่งยกเลิกไป แต่สิ่งนี้ถูกขยับมาอยู่ในระดับของนโยบายเท่านั้น ซึ่งโรงเรียนสามารถที่จะทำตามหรือไม่ทำตามก็ได้ และที่สำคัญไม่มีคำว่า “กฎทรงผมของโรงเรียนต้องไม่ขัดแย้งกับกฎทรงผมของกระทรวง” ไว้คอยคุ้มกันหัวของพวกเราอีกแล้ว
    ในไม่ช้าเราน่าจะเห็นโรงเรียนที่มีผู้บริหารบ้าอำนาจเริ่มนำกฎทรงผมเกรียน-ติ่งกลับมาใช้อีก และในโรงเรียนที่ยังมีกฎแบบนั้นอยู่ก็น่าจะบังคับใช้มันอย่างเข้มข้นขึ้น
    โดยรวมการประกาศนี้แทนที่จะสร้าง “เสรีทรงผม” ตามที่ตรีนุชพยายามกล่าวอ้าง กลับกลายเป็นฐานอำนาจในการบงการทรงผมบนหัวนักเรียนไทยให้ทวีความรุนแรงขึ้นยิ่งกว่าเดิม ตรีนุชได้อ้างว่าตนทำให้กฎทรงผมก้าวหน้า แต่ความเป็นจริง สิ่งที่เธอทำคือทำให้กฎทรงผมถอยหลังลงคลองมากกว่า
    ยกเลิกกฎทรงผมเฉย ๆ ≠ เสรีทรงผม

  • The Forest (Movie) January 30, 2023

    The Forest
    It will open in a new window.

  • Christophe Moyreau January 30, 2023

    Christophe Moyreau
    French composer

    Christophe Moyreau was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.
    Born: 6 April 1700, Orléans, France
    Died: 11 May 1774, Orléans, France

  • บนสกายวอร์ค January 27, 2023


  • Hannah Arendt January 26, 2023
  • ดร. สุจริต ภักดีี January 24, 2023


    ดร. สุจริต ภักดี นักวิจัยชาว ไทย-เยอรมัน หลังจบการศึกษาปริญญาเอกที่ Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics เตือน วิธีผลิตวัคซีนป้องกัน Covid – 19 นี้ไม่เคยทดสอบกับมนุุษย์มาก่อน วัคซีนมีส่วนประกอบหลายอย่างซึ่งสารหรือสิ่งที่ถูกห่อหุ้ม (mRNA) อาจทำให้เกิดการแพ้อย่างรุนแรง วัคซีน (mRNA) จะกระจายไปทั่วร่างกายอย่างรวดเร็ว และมันจะเข้าไปยังเซลล์ที่ไม่ได้ติดเชื้อด้วย และมันจะผลิตไวรัสโปรตีนในเซลล์ของเรา ทำเซลล์ของเราให้เป็นโรงงานผลิตโปรตีน และจะทำให้เกิดอาการแพ้ภูมิตัวเอง รวมทั้งอาจส่งผลถึงภาวะเส้นเลือดอุดตัน ซึ่งอาจทำให้เสียชีวิตได้

    โดยคำบรรยายภาษาไทยนี้ได้รับการแปลจาก Cr. rookon (https://adithepchawla.com/vaccine-page/) ซึ่งมีการแปลได้อย่างเข้าใจง่าย และสื่อความหมายที่ ดร.สุจริต ภักดีต้องการถ่ายทอดออกมาได้ดี คำบรรยายภาษาไทยนี้ประโยชน์ต่อคนไทยมาก ที่ควรได้รู้ข้อเท็จจริงในอีกมุมว่า ทำไมเราถึงไม่ควรฉีดวัคซีนป้องกันโควิด 19 ซึ่งมีผลเสียในระยะยาวมากกว่าวัคซีนที่เคยมีมา


  • The Dream January 24, 2023
  • How to reprogram your DNA? January 24, 2023
  • Who is the teacher? January 17, 2023






  • Mera Dil Ye Pukare Aaja January 6, 2023

    https://youtu.be/mr_n9R3E_w4

December 2022

  • Yasujirō Ozu December 29, 2022

  • In My Blood It Runs December 29, 2022
  • Maynu Supitcha December 28, 2022


    A new generation of female activists are forcing tough conversations despite state intimidation and arrests

    Thai Enquirer, 26 April 2022

    The handcuffs on Maynu Supitcha’s hands were deliberately tightened to inflict as much pain as possible. Every movement sent a shock of pain from her wrist up her arm as she walked to her temporary cell on March 28.

    Moments earlier, a judge told her that she violated Thailand’s royal defamation laws, or Section 112, an offense that comes with a 15 year prison sentence. The 18-year-old activist was then taken into a dark detention room in the back of the courthouse as she waited for her bail request to clear for seven hours.

    Inside the cell, officers made it known that they disapproved of her activism.

    ​”They would walk by and point fingers at me, asking each other, ‘is this that girl who insulted the [the institution]?” Maynu recalled her experience to Thai Enquirer.

    “Play rough with this one then,” the officers said.

    Maynu was finally released on bail, but she still faces royal defamation charges for conducting a public poll at a shopping mall earlier in the year. The provocative poll made headlines around the nation. The women held a whiteboard along with red stickers and asked the public to vote on sensitive topics that touched upon the establishment.

    “This year, we’ve started to become more active again in physical activities in the form of polls,” Maynu said. “The goal is to ask questions about something people do not dare to talk about.”

    The youth activists feel that conducting these polls does not pose an insult or threat to tradition, merely an intellectual exercise where the public can be honest about their views.

    Maynu first caught the country’s attention when she was photographed raising the three finger salute, a symbol of defiance taken from the Hunger Games that has since come to define opposition to authoritarian regimes across Southeast Asia.

    But now she’s a leading young feminist involved in the anti-government organization. The group endeavors to spread awareness about who really holds political and economic power. But unlike mass protests or giving speeches, their use of public polling and other provocative open tactics, are difficult to define as illegal and consequently making the activists a challenge to the state and hard to stop.

    Observers and rights groups say the activists are unpredictable and mobilize without warning. Most of the women are unhindered by arrests and the risk of serious criminal charges, including lese majeste and sedition, that have already been thrown at them.

    Even in the face of so many legal obstacles, the women are still willing to put their freedoms on the line for the truth.

    “Of course I’m afraid, very afraid,” Maynu said. “Two of my friends recently had their bail revoked. I’ve heard from insiders that we are closely monitored and some of us are now on the state’s watchlist.”

    Death is the worst-case scenario if her activism continues to upset people in the highest places in power, she said.

    “This topic has already been covered by other activists and academics, but some of them either faced severe legal consequences or disappeared. Others were kidnapped or disappeared, so it’s possible to not come out alive.”

    On April 22, Maynu was detained again while enroute to the beachtown of Cha-Aam. She said she was unaware that there was an arrest warrant for her and her friends. She spent the entire day detained. Later the police raided the apartment of one of the activists and confiscated an iPhone, a computer and other protest material.

    Intimidation and harassment

    For the past two years, demonstrators have been calling for Prime Minister and former coup leader, Prayuth Chan-ocha to step down, and for new elections to be held. But it is their touching of conservative institutions that have really made headlines and dining table conversations.

    But when the movement’s main leaders were rounded up and arrested, the protests were effectively defeated. Then when the street demonstrations ended, the state continued to carry out a systematic campaign of repression targeting hundreds of young people.

    The campaign includes intimidation and surveillance at home, in the workplace or in travel. Legal analysts say often activists are detained on trumped-up charges, and once inside prison, some activists have reported that they were abused or threatened in custody.

    “There are worrying signs that the Thai authorities would resort to strong arms tactics to silence them,” Sunai Phasuk, Thailand researcher for Human Rights Watch, told Thai Enquirer. “Let’s not forget that Thailand is a country with long records of political violence.”

    But Sunai explained that these young activists are “unpredictable and mobilize spontaneously,” and that “they appear to be unhindered by arrests and a barrage of serious criminal charges—including lese majeste and sedition—that have been thrown at them.”

    At least 1,787 people have been prosecuted for participating in the Thai protests from 2020-2022, according to Thai Lawyers for Human Rights. The legal group has documented 173 cases where people were charged with royal defamation over the same period. Earlier in April, two citizen journalists were also charged with Section 112 and could be facing 15 years in prison for live broadcasting an event at a shopping mall.

    “It’s not just the police, but also the people,” Maynu said about the harassment she’s faced. “There was a time when I went shopping with my friends at a major mall, and six security guards surrounded us, saying we were a national security threat and would do damage their mall.”

    Even at her own home she can’t evade the eyes of police. “Plainclothes officers follow me, but they also approach me and talk to me and my friends, especially during the royal motorcade events and have verbally harassed us.”

    Tantawan “Tawan” Tuatulanon, another young activist involved in monarchy-reform activities, is not only facing Section 112 from an event in February, she has been routinely targeted by plainclothes police for months. Since joining the volunteer protest security group, WeVolunteer (Wevo) at the height of the protests in 2020, she has continued to tackle monarchy reform in other forms.

    “In the beginning of last year we decided to lead activities by ourselves,” Tawan told Thai Enquirer.

    “One of the first activities was the poll that asked people how they were impacted by the motorcades.”

    Tawan was recently arrested for a second time in mid April. The authorities claimed she violated her bail conditions for attending an event near a motorcade. Her bail request has been denied and she has been on hunger strike since April 19. She has been physically assaulted in clashes with police. But it’s the relentless surveillance by the security forces that has her feeling frustrated.

    “I have been followed a lot before the polls, people visiting and peeping into my house or following me in a car. First I was unsure but it was clear I was being followed,” Tawan explained.

    Months before, a group of 10 officers entered her home and attempted to pressure her parents to force her to stop her activities. Later she was pursued by plainclothes police on motorcycles, some of them even followed her on the expressway. More recently, Tawan was tailed and threatened by unidentified men as she was leaving a demonstration.

    Despite the legal harassment and intimidation, the young feminists are still undeterred.

    “Death would be the risk I could not take, but I am not going to stop doing these activities,” Maynu said. Because I feel we have no choice but to move forward.”

  • Si Dieu me prête vie December 28, 2022

    Si Dieu me prête vie.
    If God lends me life.

    Adieu, sans adieu, car si Dieu me conserve en vie, je repasserai […] par ici, soit pour y demeurer quelque temps […]
    Farewell but not goodbye, for if God spares me, I shall pass […] this way again, either to stay for a short while […]

  • Turning kids into soldiers December 24, 2022

  • Es het einisch eine gseit December 19, 2022


    es het einisch eine gseit,
    är syg nümme da, wenn’s schneit
    und sy schpur, die fing me nümm im schnee

    aber dlüt hei über das
    nume gschpottet und gseit: was
    redt de dä im summer scho vo schnee?

    und me het nen immer meh
    schpät ir nacht no chönne gseh,
    ganz allei dür aui gasse ga

    und de hie und da, da het
    är lut mit sich säuber gredt,
    d lüt hei glachet und sy blybe schtah

    ‘s sich no gar nid e so lang,
    dass mir einisch mitenang
    par minuten öppis prichtet hei

    und gly druuf han i’s verno,
    är syg nümme da und scho
    louft me z mornderisch im erschte schnee

    es het einisch eine gseit,
    är syg nümme da, wenn’s schneit
    und sy schpur, die fing me nümm im schnee

  • Om Ah Hung Vajra Guru Pema Siddhi Hung December 18, 2022
  • A Chariot for Knowledge Holders December 18, 2022
  • Be ready to die December 16, 2022
  • Twelve years ago December 9, 2022


    Twelve year ago, on the 7th of December 2010, Julian Assange lost his freedom.

  • Violence against students in Thailand December 8, 2022

    เรามักคุ้นชินกับการที่โรงเรียนไทยบังคับนักเรียนเข้าร่วมกิจกรรมต่าง ๆ เช่น กีฬาสี ค่ายธรรมะ ค่ายลูกเสือ ฯลฯ หากไม่เข้าร่วมก็อาจจะถูกหักคะแนนหรือแม้กระทั่งขู่จะไม่ให้จบการศึกษา แล้วการบังคับนักเรียนแบบนี้ในระบบการศึกษาไทยเป็นสิ่งที่ปกติจริงหรือ?

  • Killswitch (Documentary) December 3, 2022

November 2022

October 2022

September 2022

  • นิว จตุพร September 24, 2022


    ศาลพิพากษาจำคุก “นิว จตุพร” 3 ปีคดี จากเหตุแต่งชุดไทยไปเดินแฟชั่นโชว์ที่สีลมปี 63 ศาลอ้างเป็นการล้อเลียนเสียดสีราชินีทำให้เป็นที่ตลกขบขัน แต่ให้การเป็นประโยชน์ลดเหลือ 2 ปี ไม่รอลงอาญา ทนายยื่นประกันไป 3 แสนบาท แต่ยังต้องเข้าคุกรอศาลอุทธรณ์พิจารณา

  • Today in Thailand September 21, 2022

  • Poetas da Babilônia September 16, 2022

    Brazil forever.

  • Teddy and the police September 13, 2022


    Did they respected you, did they use violence?

  • Glenn Gould and Leonard Bernstein September 12, 2022
  • Henry Purcell September 12, 2022
  • All of me September 12, 2022
  • Via con me September 10, 2022

    Via via
    Vieni via di qui
    Niente più ti lega a questi luoghi
    Neanche questi fiori azzuri

    Via via
    Neanche questo tempo grigio
    Pieno di musiche
    E di uomini che ti son piaciuti

    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    Good luck my baby
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    I dream of you

    Chips chips
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du

    Via via
    Vieni via con me
    Entra in questo amore buio
    Non perderti per niente al mondo

    Via via
    Non perderti per niente al mondo
    Lo spettacolo d’arte varia
    Di uno innamorato di te

    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’swonderful
    Good luck my baby
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    I dream of you

    Chips chips
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du

    Via via
    Vieni via con me
    Entra in questo amore buio
    Pieno di uomini

    Via
    Entra e fatti un bagno caldo
    C’è un accappatoio azzurro
    Fuori piove un mondo freddo

    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    Good luck my baby
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    It’s wonderful
    I dream of you

    Chips chips chip
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum ci bum bum
    Du du du du du
    Ci bum

  • Il y a une amitié veritable. September 10, 2022

    Monsieur Arthur craint de perdre l’amitié d’Astride.

    Suite à une rencontre le jour précédent avec son vieux maître, Arthur lui écrit ceci :

    Je vais réfléchir à ce besoin que j’ai d’avoir des amitiés, à cette recherche d’une amitié véritable. C’est quelque chose de très ancien, un truc de l’enfance. C’est tout ce que je peux dire pour le moment.

    Spontanément son vieux maître lui répondit :

    Il y a une amitié véritable.

    Si tu cherches, alors, ne fait que cela.

    Astride comprendra peut-être, l’infinie importance des autres, de toi, d’elle-même, de tous êtres et de toutes choses, de cette infinie douceur.

    Elle comprendra ce respect et l’impeccable correction, rigueur, honnêteté qu’elle (l’amitié) demande de nous.

    Et aussi la nécessité de se détendre, de se retirer, de bruler les livres, de rester précis.

    L’amitié invoque toutes les vertus et même ce qui est au-delà de la vertu. Là-haut dans le ciel, tout autour et en dessous.

    Bien se reposer si c’est possible.

    L’amitié c’est toujours avec Dieu, Dieu c’est toujours ou ultimement soi-même. Les humains deviennent amis avec des “objets”, cela les aide à pratiquer la vertu, aimer la beauté. L’amitié est toujours pure, elle se suffit à elle-même, purifie tout (ou pour certains elle demande une parfaite purification). Ne pas en douter et une chose, persévérer la seconde, s’y abandonner le but, la grâce.

August 2022

  • Again August 25, 2022


    I wonder how it is to live in Thailand today.

  • Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas August 5, 2022

    Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas

  • We do not need education August 3, 2022

    We don’t need no education
    We don’t need no thought control
    No dark sarcasm in the classroom
    Teacher, leave them kids alone
    Hey, teacher, leave them kids alone
    All in all it’s just another brick in the wall
    All in all you’re just another brick in the wall
    We don’t need no education
    We don’t need no thought control
    No dark sarcasm in the classroom
    Teachers, leave them kids alone
    Hey, teachers, leave those kids alone
    All in all you’re just another brick in the wall
    All in all you’re just another brick in the wall
    Wrong, do it again
    If you don’t eat yer meat, you can’t have any pudding
    How can you have any pudding if you don’t eat yer meat?
    You! Yes, you behind the bikesheds, stand still laddy!

July 2022

May 2022

  • Just another day in school May 26, 2022
  • พระราชา May 26, 2022

    สอนให้เด็กไม่รู้จักคิด เพียงแต่ดูหน้าปกที่เขียนไว้ “จ้าวแผ่นดินไทย ราชันแห่งโลก” กษัตริย์จะเป็น “จ้าว” ของแผ่นดินได้ไง และเป็น “พระราชา” ของโลกอะไรกัน

  • The destruction of the Jarawa tribe May 26, 2022
  • May peace be upon us May 23, 2022

    May peace be upon us.
    Que la paix soit avec nous.

  • เสด็จทอดพระเนตรผลงานศิลปะ May 16, 2022


    เสด็จทอดพระเนตรผลงานศิลปะ

  • อากง May 9, 2022


    ทำความรู้จักคดีของ “อากง” หรือ อำพล ชายอายุ 61 ปีที่ถูกกล่าวหาว่า ส่งข้อความมีเนื้อหาดูหมิ่นแสดงความอาฆาตมาดร้ายต่อพระมหากษัตริย์ฯ

    ภายหลังยื่นขอพระราชทานอภัยโทษ ระหว่างรอ อากงเสียชีวิตด้วยโรคมะเร็งในเรือนจำ

  • Mediterranean Sundance May 5, 2022
  • เราจะต้องยิ้ม May 2, 2022


    ถ้าเค้าอยากให้เราสิ้นหวัง เราจะต้องมีพลัง
    ถ้าเค้าอยากให้เราเศร้า เราจะต้องยิ้ม
    ถ้าเค้าอยากให้เราหยุดคิด เราจะต้องคิด
    ถ้าเค้าทำให้เรากลัว เราจะต้องกล้า
    ถ้าเค้าอยากให้เรายอมจำนน เราจะต้องลุกขึ้นสู้

    I love you, you are not forgotten.

April 2022

March 2022

  • I Ketut Marya (Documentary) March 10, 2022
  • The Naked Island (Movie) March 8, 2022
  • Nong Tawan March 6, 2022


    น้องตะวันจะโดนแจ้ง 112 และฝากขังวันพรุ่งนี้

  • To satisfy Vajiralongkorn March 2, 2022


    เพื่อให้เป็นที่พอใจของวชิราลงกรณ์
    ประเทศนี้อะไรๆก็ต้องทำตามอารมณ์ของท่าน
    อนาถแท้

February 2022

  • Rahaf Mohammed February 14, 2022

    We remember our good friend Rahaf, when she was stuck at Bangkok airport, and the Thai police lied to her and to everyone and tried to force her to return to her family. She did not wanted to return to her family, but the Thai police tried everything to force her. She was fortunate to get the help of a lawyer, a journalist and then more people. You did not get any help. Mostly they do not respect human rights. They did not respect your rights, neither did they respect mine.

  • Genocide in Australia February 14, 2022

    Much of the same is done in Thailand, just ask Kwan, he knows it, and you know it too.

  • I know how difficult it is for you February 13, 2022

  • First Contact (Documentary) February 10, 2022

    Part one

    Part two

  • They love each other February 10, 2022


    Bim was the most handsome of all the donkeys. Abdallah was his master.
    But Abdallah was poor, so poor that he had never been able, like the other children, to buy his donkey the least bit of cake.
    But Bim did not blame his little master, and when both of them were hungry, they said to each other that they love each other.

  • ‘เพนกวิน-ไผ่’อยู่ในเรือนจำครบ 6 เดือนแล้ว February 6, 2022
  • Le ballon rouge February 4, 2022

    Original film and soundtrack.

    Original film with new soundtrack.

January 2022

  • Tina Turner January 31, 2022

    Crazy Tina, never give up.

  • นักเรียนเลว January 29, 2022

    นักเรียนเลว แสดงออกเชิงสัญลักษณ์เพื่อรณรงค์ให้ ปชช ร่วมลงชื่อในร่าง พรบ สิทธิมนุษยชนของผู้เรียนและตระหนักถึงปัญหาการละเมิดสิทธิในสถานศึกษา

    ขบวนของนร.ถูกล่ามโซ่สลักคำว่า อำนาจนิยม ไว้ที่ มือ เท้า คอ เพื่อแสดงออกถึงอำนาจนิยมในสถานศึกษาที่ล่ามเด็กไว้ด้วย กฎระเบียบราวกับนักโทษ

  • Bring love back into the clinic January 29, 2022
  • A Gathering of the Tribe January 29, 2022
  • Police January 28, 2022

    ทุกวันนี้ประชาชนไม่คาดหวังไรกับตำรวจอยู่แล้ว ไปนั่งหน้าสลอนอยู่กับกบฏวันทำรัฐประหารมีไรให้กูคาดหวังกับพวกมึงอีก? ไปนั่งอยู่กับโจรปล้นอำนาจ กูจะคาดหวังไรกับตำรวจอีก?!?!

    วงการนี้หาคนดีฝั่งปชช.ยากมาก
    มีแต่ เงิน อำนาจ ลาภ ยศ สรรเสริญ พวกพ้อง เท่านั้นที่พวกมันสนใจ ใครขวางทางถูกกำจัดทั้งทางตรงและทางอ้อม โดยอาศัยช่องโหว่ของกฎหมาย.

  • The psychology of suggestion January 28, 2022
  • Je suis venu vous voir January 27, 2022
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Requiem KV 626 January 27, 2022

    1. Introitus: Requiem

    Perhaps it is the best version of Mozart’s Requiem ever.

    Perhaps it is the best version of Mozart’s Requiem ever.

    Turn on subtitles: Catalan, 中文, Český, Deutsch, English, Español, Français, 한국어, עברי, Italiano, Latin, 日本語, Polski, Português, Русский, Türkçe (by Faik Uyanık), Українська.

  • Carl Theodor Dreyer January 26, 2022
  • If I die before meeting you January 26, 2022

    Ii I die before meeting you, I will enter your mind stream and accompany you forever.

  • Jack Kornfield January 24, 2022
  • Stand alone January 24, 2022


    They tried to bury us. They forgot we were seeds.

    The original is from Greek poet Dinos Christianopoulos.

    καὶ τί δὲν κάνατε γιὰ νὰ μὲ θάψετε
    ὅμως ξεχάσατε πὼς ἤμουν σπόρος
    What didn’t you do to bury me
    but you forgot I was a seed.

  • This is what is happening to us January 21, 2022

    The ruling class is absolutely intransigent in its denial of human rights, not just Julian Assange, but to the world in general. The governments who we are railing against for this disgusting behavior and this treatment of Julian Assange, feel the same about Julian Assange as they do about the all of the rest of the world, they don’t give a fuck about you or me or Julian Assange or anyone else on this planet. They just want to be allowed to continue to plunder the planet and if it dies, it dies, who care, they don’t care, they care about power.

    Roger Waters

  • Santiago, Chile January 20, 2022

    At the airport you said : “Let me go to Santiago”. But they did what they did, you can remember it all.

  • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone January 17, 2022

    You are one of them.

  • Faiyen in Paris January 17, 2022
  • James Thiérrée January 14, 2022
  • The Fundamentals of Acoustic Guitar January 14, 2022

    Thinking of you.

  • Belmarsh prison January 14, 2022


    Waiting for release.

  • แง่ะ January 13, 2022
  • Joy January 9, 2022
  • You haven’t embraced the sacred January 9, 2022

    People, you haven’t embraced the sacred, you still have taboo.
    The sacred could not embrace you, you still have taboo.

  • 1000 days in Belmarsh January 5, 2022

    Julian Assange: 1000 days in Belmarsh.
    Mini Man: 932 days since freedom and love were taken away.

December 2021

November 2021

  • Sebastião Tapajós November 19, 2021

    Brazil, brazil.

  • Shape Of My Heart November 19, 2021

    Something to learn. Do you have your guitar or those tyrants never gave it back to you?

  • David Bowie November 19, 2021

    Love from Teddy today to you.

  • Tibetan Medical Paintings November 16, 2021
  • The country belong to the people November 15, 2021

  • Badiucao (Artist) November 14, 2021

  • Julian Assange will marry in jail November 12, 2021


    Julian Assange will marry his friend and the mother of his children in Belmarsh prison.
    Free Julian Assange now.

  • Sixteen Tons November 12, 2021
  • Vinnie Colaiuta November 12, 2021
  • Eddie Van Hallen November 12, 2021
  • Tommy Emmanuel and Feng E November 12, 2021
  • Oscar Peterson November 12, 2021
  • The excavator song November 12, 2021
  • Yngwie Malmsteen November 11, 2021

    What can I do for you mini man?

  • Your name November 11, 2021


    Your name is at the end of most of his videos since quite some time. I do not know what I can do for you.

  • Étienne de La Boétie November 5, 2021

    Poor, wretched, and stupid peoples, nations determined on your own misfortune and blind to your own good! You let yourselves be deprived before your own eyes of the best part of your revenues; your fields are plundered, your homes robbed, your family heirlooms taken away. You live in such a way that you cannot claim a single thing as your own; and it would seem that you consider yourselves lucky to be loaned your property, your families, and your very lives. All this havoc, this misfortune, this ruin, descends upon you not from alien foes, but from the one enemy whom you yourselves render as powerful as he is, for whom you go bravely to war, for whose greatness you do not refuse to offer your own bodies unto death. He who thus domineers over you has only two eyes, only two hands, only one body, no more than is possessed by the least man among the infinite numbers dwelling in your cities; he has indeed nothing more than the power that you confer upon him to destroy you. Where has he acquired enough eyes to spy upon you, if you do not provide them yourselves? How can he have so many arms to beat you with, if he does not borrow them from you? The feet that trample down your cities, where does he get them if they are not your own? How does he have any power over you except through you? How would he dare assail you if he had no cooperation from you? What could he do to you if you yourselves did not connive with the thief who plunders you, if you were not accomplices of the murderer who kills you, if you were not traitors to yourselves? You sow your crops in order that he may ravage them, you install and furnish your homes to give him goods to pillage; you rear your daughters that he may gratify his lust; you bring up your children in order that he may confer upon them the greatest privilege he knows — to be led into his battles, to be delivered to butchery, to be made the servants of his greed and the instruments of his vengeance; you yield your bodies unto hard labor in order that he may indulge in his delights and wallow in his filthy pleasures; you weaken yourselves in order to make him the stronger and the mightier to hold you in check.

  • Missing, please help! November 4, 2021

  • No more blablabla November 4, 2021

  • The Collapse of Civilization? November 2, 2021
  • Assange tortured to death November 1, 2021

October 2021

  • Collateral murder (Documentary) October 29, 2021

    WikiLeaks video: “Collateral murder”

    WikiLeaks video: *Collateral Murder”
    U.S. Soldier Ethan McCord testimony

    This is what humans do to others.

    https://collateralmurder.wikileaks.org/
    If you cannot see the first video on YouTube because of restrictions, you can look at it on Wikileak.
    For the second, I am still searching.

  • Julian Assange latest news October 28, 2021
  • Bernard Lavilliers (Music) October 26, 2021
  • Russian Sonic Microwave Attack October 21, 2021

    This is so funny.

  • Attacking a good man October 12, 2021

    Thai police charge Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit with lèse majesté.

    Nang Loeng police submitted its case file, on a lèse majesté charge against Progressive Group leader Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit, to the Office of the Attorney-General today (Tuesday).

    Thanathorn’s lawyer, Krisadang Nutcharat, said that the police decided to charge Thanathorn, also former leader of the now-defunct Future Forward party, over his livestream lectures on the government’s vaccine management, which contained remarks allegedly deemed to offend the monarchy, as he was questioning the government’s AstraZeneca vaccine strategy, most of which produced by Thai firm Siam Bioscience, which is owned by a subsidiary of the Crown Property Bureau.

    The lèse majesté charge was initiated by Apiwat Khanthong, chief of the committee in charge of investigating and taking legal actions against people for disseminating false information about the performance of the prime minister and his cabinet.

    Krisadang said that public prosecutors will study the case file and summon Thanathorn to appear, at a date yet to be fixed, to hear their decision over his possible indictment.

    Thanathorn, meanwhile, reported to Phahonyothin police station this morning to acknowledge a second lèse majesté charge, also in connection with his Facebook livestream lectures.

    In his Twitter post, he urged the public to monitor closely more than 800 political cases still pending against over 1,500 people, with many of them facing lèse majesté charges, which are often used by the state to gag the media and the people.

    He said that the charges against them are unjust, urging the public to protect them and to condemn this injustice.

  • เพลง สถาบันกากสัส October 9, 2021

    เพลง สถาบันกากสัส
    The Song Sucky Institution

    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันกากสัส
    Sucky institution, sucky institution
    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันระยำๆๆ
    Sucky institution, evil institution

    สถาบันอะไร กดหัวผู้คน
    What sort of institution intimidates/suppresses the people,
    สั่งฆ่าประชาชน หนุนรัฐประหาร
    orders the murder of citizens, supports coups?
    สถาบันอะไร ห้ามคนวิจารณ์
    What sort of institution forbids criticism [of itself],
    ใช้อำนาจเผด็จการ ครอบงำสังคม
    [and] uses dictatorial power to dominate society?

    มันใช้งานผ่านศาล ทหาร ตำรวจ ไอ้สัสกะหมาๆๆ
    It uses the bypassing of courts. [It uses] soldiers and police. Animal(s)! Dog(s)!

    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันกากสัส
    Sucky instiutiton, sucky institution
    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันระยำๆๆ
    Sucky institution, evil institution

    สถาบันอะไร ผูกขาดความดี
    What sort of institution, monopolizes merit/virtue,
    แดกห่าภาษี ย่ำยีคนจน
    devours *expletive* taxes, ravages poor people?
    สถาบันอะไร ร่ำรวยสุดล้น
    What sort of institution is completely overflowing with riches,
    ทั้งโกงทั้งปล้น เสือกสอนให้คนพอเพียง
    Both cheating and plundering, [then] butting in to teach people to live with “just enough”
    มันไม่เคยจะพอ โลภหลงอำนาจ ไอ้สัสกะหมาๆๆ
    For them it was never enough. Greedy, power hungry. Horrible animal dog!
    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันกากสัส
    Sucky institution, sucky institution
    สถาบันกากสัส สถาบันระยำๆๆ
    Sucky institution, evil institution!

  • We will not forget October 6 October 7, 2021

    Thammasat University October 6, 1976.

    Before dawn on a Wednesday morning 45 years ago today, October 6, 1976, thousands of ultraroyalist militiamen, soldiers and police armed with guns, knives, rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank weapons launched a vicious attack on student protesters in the grounds of Thammasat University in Bangkok.

  • Hieronymus Bosch (Painter) October 1, 2021


    The Haywain Triptych (circa 1516)


    Exterior panels


    Left panel


    Center panel


    Right panel

September 2021

  • Noam Chomsky September 29, 2021

    Never to forget his name is excellent.
    To study what he says is priceless.

  • Johnny Cash September 27, 2021

    Last concert

    Ring of Fire

    Love is a burning thing
    And it makes a fiery ring
    Bound by wild desire
    I fell into a ring of fire
    I fell into a burning ring of fire
    I went down, down, down and the flames went higher
    And it burns, burns, burns, the ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    I fell into a burning ring of fire
    I went down, down, down and the flames went higher
    And it burns, burns, burns, the ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    The taste of love is sweet
    When hearts like ours meet
    I fell for you like a child
    Oh, but the fire went wild
    I fell into a burning ring of fire
    I went down, down, down and the flames went higher
    And it burns, burns, burns, the ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    I fell into a burning ring of fire
    I went down, down, down and the flames went higher
    And it burns, burns, burns, the ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    And it burns, burns, burns, the ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    The ring of fire
    The ring of fire

  • Poisson is medicine September 26, 2021
  • Nicolas C. Grey (Artist) September 20, 2021

    {whispering}

    I’m not much, but I’m honest and this ain’t
    Just another sad and silly love song, believe me
    I’d rather cry in my mirror and keep this to myself
    And drive far away from here and somehow lose myself

    Oh, people stare and point at me, they whisper, wonder why
    I talk with the curtains and they don’t realize
    I’m answered back in raspy layers of drapes, they are my best friend
    They block the view, keep you out and keep me in

    Oh, {?} stay at home, just me alone in my room
    Til the cigarettes are gone, I run out and get some, and I can’t get wrecked soon
    Enough is enough, this is a choice I must decide
    Keep it quite to myself, locked up inside

    Oh, people stare and point at me, they whisper and wonder why
    I talk with the curtains, I don’t think they realize
    I’m answered back in raspy layers of drapes, they are my true friends
    They block the view, the sun, keep you out and keep me in

    I tried not to care
    I tried to lie to the mirror
    I tried to pretend to forget the truth but I can’t
    The same old, nothing new, what you see is what you ain’t

    People stare and whisper, they look at me and wonder why
    I talk to the curtains, I don’t think they realize
    I’m answered back in raspy layers of drapes, they are my true friends
    They block the view, the sun, keep you out and keep me in

  • Milgram experiment September 19, 2021

    Do not follow orders, never follow orders.
    Listen to your heart.
    Use logic.

  • If I die September 14, 2021

    If I die it is not because I did not wanted to stay longer,
    It is becauzs the body is broken.
    Because it beyond repair.
    I wish I will be there until we meet again.

  • James Brown September 14, 2021

    Maybe what he says is not true, but he is such a great singer.

  • U. G. Krishnamurti September 12, 2021

    Part 1

    Part 2

    Part 3

    Part 4

  • Julian Assange today September 9, 2021

    See for yourself. We knew it all along.

  • พีระมิดระบบทุนนิยม September 8, 2021



    โดยภาพแสดงให้เห็นถึง “พีระมิดทางสังคม” หรือลำดับชั้นทางสังคมโดยแท้ ที่ซึ่งผู้ร่ำรวยมั่งคั่งอันเป็นชนส่วนน้อยอยู่ชั้นบนสุดในขณะที่ผู้ยากไร้อันเป็นชนส่วนมากอยู่ชั้นล่างสุด ด้านบนสุดของยอดพีระมิดคือถุงเงินอันเป็นตัวแทนของระบบทุนนิยม ถัดลงมาคือชั้นของเจ้านายเชื้อพระวงศ์และบรรดาผู้นำของรัฐที่กล่าวว่า “เราปกครองท่าน” (We rule you) ถัดมาอีกคือชั้นของนักบวชที่กล่าวว่า “เราหลอกลวงท่าน” (We fool you) ตามมาด้วยชั้นของบรรดานายทหารที่กล่าวว่า “เรายิงไปที่ท่าน” (We shoot at you) และชั้นของบรรดากระฎุมพีที่กล่าวว่า “เรารับประทานแทนท่าน” (We eat for you) ส่วนชั้นล่างสุดของพีระมิดคือชั้นของบรรดากรรมากรซึ่งกล่าวว่า “เราทำงานให้ทุกคน… เราหล่อเลี้ยงทุกคน” (We work for all… We feed all)

  • Friendship September 8, 2021

    When friendship with someone
    Causes the three poisons to increase,
    Degrades the activities of listening, reflecting, and meditating,
    And destroys loving kindness and compassion,
    To give up such a friendship
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    From “The Thirty Seven Verses on the Practice of a Bodhisattva“, verse 5.

  • Bird of the day September 7, 2021

August 2021

  • Jon Jandai August 30, 2021
  • Russell Brand August 30, 2021
  • A imprensa que estupra August 28, 2021

    Eliane Brum

    A imprensa que estupra
    28/05/2012

    A repórter que condenou e humilhou um suspeito não é exceção. O episódio mostra a conivência histórica entre parte da imprensa, da polícia e do sistema penitenciário na violação dos direitos de presos pobres (ou presos e pobres)

    – Não estuprou, mas queria estuprar!

    A frase foi dita pela repórter Mirella Cunha, no programa “Brasil Urgente”, da Band da Bahia, a um jovem de 18 anos, preso em uma delegacia desde 31 de março. Algemado, ele diz que arrancou o celular e a corrente de ouro de uma mulher, mas repete que não a estuprou. Na reportagem, a jornalista o chama de “estuprador”. Pergunta se a marca que ele tem no rosto é resultado de um tiro. Ele responde que foi espancado. A repórter não estranha que um homem detido, sob responsabilidade do Estado, tenha marcas de tortura. O suspeito diz que fará todos os exames necessários para que seja provado que ele não estuprou a mulher. Ele não sabe o nome do exame, não sabe o que é “corpo de delito” e pronuncia uma palavra inexistente. Ela debocha e repete a pergunta para expô-lo ao ridículo. Ele então pronuncia uma palavra semelhante à “próstata”. A jornalista o faz repetir várias vezes o nome do exame para que ela e os telespectadores possam rir. Depois, pergunta se ele gosta de fazer exame de próstata. No estúdio, o apresentador Uziel Bueno diz: “Tá chorando? Você não fez o exame de próstata. Senão, meu irmão, você ia chorar. É metido a estuprador, é? É metido a estuprador? É o seguinte. Nas horas vagas eu sou urologista…”.

    A chamada da reportagem era: “Chororô na delegacia: acusado de estupro alega inocência”. A certa altura, a jornalista olha para a câmera e diz ao apresentador, rindo:

    – Depois, Uziel, você não quer que o vídeo vá pro YouTube…

    Ela tinha razão: o vídeo foi postado no YouTube. A versão mais curta dele já foi vista por quase 1 milhão de pessoas. Aqui neste link, se quiser, você pode assistir a uma versão um pouco mais longa, de quase cinco minutos.

    O vídeo foi divulgado nas redes sociais, na semana passada, com grande repercussão e forte pressão por providências. Um grupo de jornalistas fez uma carta aberta: “A reportagem de Mirella Cunha, no interior da 12ª Delegacia de Itapoã, e os comentários do apresentador Uziel Bueno, no estúdio da Band, afrontam o artigo 5º da Constituição Federal: ‘É assegurado aos presos o respeito à integridade física e moral’. E não faz mal reafirmar que a República Federativa do Brasil tem entre seus fundamentos ‘a dignidade da pessoa humana’. Apesar do clima de barbárie num conjunto apodrecido de programas policialescos, na Bahia e no Brasil, os direitos constitucionais são aplicáveis, inclusive aos suspeitos de crimes tipificados pelo Código Penal”.

    E, mais adiante: “É importante ressaltar que a responsabilidade dos abusos não é apenas dos repórteres, mas também dos produtores do programa, da direção da emissora e de seus anunciantes – e nesta última categoria se encontra o governo do Estado que, desta maneira, se torna patrocinador das arbitrariedades praticadas nestes programas”. Em 23/5, o Ministério Público Federal abriu representação contra a jornalista. Em nota, a Band afirmou que tomaria “todas as medidas disciplinares necessárias” e que “a postura da repórter fere o código de ética do jornalismo da emissora”.

    Em visita ao suspeito, a Defensoria Pública assim o descreveu: “É réu primário, vive nas ruas desde criança, apesar de ter residência em Cajazeiras 11. Tem seis irmãos, é analfabeto e já vendeu doces e balas dentro de ônibus. Ao ser questionado sobre como se sentiu durante a entrevista, ele diz: ‘Eu me senti humilhado, porque ela ficou rindo de mim o tempo todo. Eu chorei porque sabia que eu iria pagar por algo que não fiz, e que minha mãe, meus parentes e amigos iriam me ver na TV como estuprador, e eu sou inocente’”.

    A reportagem é um exemplo de mau jornalismo do começo ao fim. E, para completar, ainda presta um desserviço à saúde pública, ao reforçar todos os clichês e preconceitos relacionados ao exame de próstata. Por causa dessa mistura de ignorância e machismo, homens demais morrem de câncer de próstata no país. Os abusos cometidos pela repórter e pelo apresentador foram tantos, porém, que esse prejuízo passou quase despercebido.

    Por que vale a pena refletir sobre esse episódio? Primeiro, porque ele está longe de ser uma exceção. Se fosse, estaríamos vivendo em um país muito melhor. O microfone (e a caneta) tem sido usado no Brasil, assim como em outros países, também para cometer violências. Nestas imagens, se observarmos bem, a repórter manipula o microfone como uma arma. (Outras interpretações, vou reservar para os psicanalistas.)

    Muitos passam mal ao assistir ao vídeo porque o que se assiste é uma violência sem contato físico, sem marcas visíveis. Uma violação cometida com o microfone e uma câmera, exibida para milhões de pessoas, contra um homem algemado (e, portanto, indefeso), sob a responsabilidade do Estado, que, em vez de garantir os direitos do suspeito, o expõe à violência.

    O suspeito é humilhado por algo que deveria ser uma vergonha para o Estado e para todos nós: a péssima qualidade da educação. E, no caso dele, o analfabetismo de um jovem de 18 anos no ano de 2012, na “sexta economia do mundo”. Ao afirmar que o rapaz era um estuprador, a repórter colocou em risco também a vida do suspeito, já que todos sabem – e muitos toleram – o que acontece dentro das cadeias e prisões com quem comete um estupro.

    A repórter e o apresentador, porém, são apenas a parte mais visível da rede de violações. Estão longe de serem os únicos responsáveis. Para que esse caso se torne emblemático e para que a Justiça valha é preciso que todas as responsabilidades sejam apuradas, a começar pela do Estado. Tanto em permitir que alguém sob sua custódia fosse exibido dessa maneira, e possivelmente contra a sua vontade, numa rede de TV, quanto nas marcas de tortura no seu rosto. As marcas e o relato de espancamento, aliás, seriam objeto da apuração de qualquer bom jornalista. No caso, não suscitaram nenhuma surpresa.

    Basta ligar a televisão para ter certeza de que nem essa jornalista, nem esse apresentador, nem essa rede de TV são os únicos a violar direitos previstos em lei, especialmente contra presos e contra favelados e moradores das periferias do Brasil. Especialmente, portanto, contra os mais frágeis e com menos acesso à Justiça. Vale a pena lembrar que o número de defensores públicos no Brasil é insuficiente – em São Paulo, por exemplo, segundo relatório feito pela Pastoral Carcerária Nacional e pelo Instituto Terra, Trabalho e Cidadania, há apenas 500 defensores públicos para prestar assistência jurídica à população carente. E quase 60 mil presos que nunca foram julgados.

    Como também sabemos, nenhum jornalista publica ou veicula o que quer. Para que reportagens como esta tenham espaço é preciso que exista antes uma estrutura disposta a permitir que os maus profissionais violem as leis. Em última instância, também quem anuncia seus produtos em programas que exibem esse tipo de reportagem está sendo conivente e estimulando a violação de direitos.

    A responsabilidade não acaba aí. Nos blogs, onde o vídeo foi denunciado como uma violação de Direitos Humanos, parte dos comentários dos leitores pode ser assim resumida: “Ah, mas ele não é nenhum inocente”. Ou: “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”. São afirmações estúpidas, mas elas ajudam a explicar por que esse tipo de abordagem tem audiência. Persiste ainda no Brasil uma ideia de condenação sem julgamento – e o linchamento público, via TV, é uma das formas mais apreciadas de exercer a barbárie. Até porque, dessa forma, ninguém precisa sujar as mãos de sangue.

    É preciso, porém, lembrar o óbvio: até ser julgado, um suspeito é um suspeito. E só o ritual da Justiça poderá dizer se ele é culpado ou inocente. E, mesmo culpado, ele vai cumprir a pena determinada pela lei, mas continuará a ter direitos. E esta é uma conquista da civilização – contra a barbárie.

    É também por causa da vontade de fazer “justiça” com as próprias mãos de parte da população que o mau jornalista se sente “autorizado” a se colocar no lugar de juiz e condenar um suspeito no tribunal midiático. Quem o legitima não são as leis tão duramente conquistadas no processo democrático, mas a audiência. Quem legitima o mau jornalismo é justamente esse tipo de comentário: “Ah, mas ele não é nenhum inocente” ou “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”.

    “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”.

    Para esse tipo de raciocínio valer e o mau jornalismo continuar tendo espaço é preciso que a sociedade decida que não existem leis no Brasil e que os suspeitos perdem todos os direitos e devem ser linchados sem julgamento, nas ruas ou na TV. E isso vale para todos – e também para aqueles que gostam de expressar sua sanha porque pensam estar a salvo da sanha alheia.

    Por sorte, não chegamos a esse ponto. Mas, para que violências como a que assistimos não se repitam, não basta punir quem as comete, é preciso que cada um saiba que, ao dar audiência para o mau jornalismo, está escolhendo a barbárie. O telespectador também tem responsabilidade. Cada um de nós tem responsabilidade. É assim numa democracia: a responsabilidade é compartilhada. Quem escolhe, se posiciona e se responsabiliza. E quem se omite também escolhe e se responsabiliza.

    Este episódio, que, repito, está longe de ser exceção, poderia ser usado para iluminar capítulos não contados, ou pouco contados, ou ainda mal contados da imprensa. É importante compreender que, historicamente, parte do jornalismo policial tem uma relação promíscua com a polícia. Desde sempre. Parte porque há grandes e decentes repórteres na história da crônica policial brasileira. Mas, arrisco-me a dizer, não representam a maioria.

    Na ditadura, parte dos jornalistas policiais foi conivente com a tortura dos presos políticos, da mesma maneira que já era conivente, antes, com a tortura dos presos comuns. E que, depois do fim da ditadura, continuou a ser conivente com a tortura largamente praticada até hoje nas cadeias e presídios do país. Há histórias escabrosas e ainda não bem contadas de repórteres que, inclusive, assistiam às sessões de tortura e até ajudavam a torturar. Estas só tomei conhecimento pela narrativa de colegas mais velhos – obviamente, nunca presenciei.

    Na transição democrática, nos anos 80, eu cheguei a conviver com jornalistas da editoria de polícia que andavam armados e achavam não só natural, mas desejável, a tortura de presos. Outros se limitavam a não denunciá-las. Era comum o repórter chegar à delegacia e ouvir a seguinte frase: “Espera um pouquinho, que estamos maquiando o elemento”.

    “Maquiar” o preso significava que estavam apagando as marcas de tortura, para que ele pudesse ser fotografado ou filmado. Algumas marcas, claro, restavam. E ninguém – nem repórter, nem fotógrafo, nem mesmo os leitores – achava estranho.

    É por causa dessa mentalidade, ainda hoje largamente disseminada entre a população brasileira, que as denúncias das torturas praticadas nas cadeias e prisões não causam revolta – para além das organizações de direitos humanos e alguns segmentos restritos da sociedade. Como se, ao ser condenado ou apenas suspeito de um crime, as pessoas perdessem todos os seus direitos, inclusive os fundamentais.

    Se a tortura de presos políticos durante a ditadura tem grande repercussão na classe média, a tortura contumaz dos presos comuns, praticada antes, durante e depois do regime militar, é tolerada por parte da população – até hoje. Sobre a tortura disseminada nas cadeias e prisões brasileiras, aliás, aguarda-se a divulgação do relatório da ONU, cujos resultados e recomendações estão nas mãos do governo federal desde fevereiro.

    Se no passado alguém estranhasse as marcas dos presos, bastava alegar “resistência à prisão” – “explicação” até hoje amplamente usada pelas polícias para justificar a morte de suspeitos. É assim que a pena de morte – punição inexistente na legislação brasileira – tem vigorado na prática no país. Suspeitos são executados pela polícia – e a justificativa é “morto ao resistir à prisão” ou “morto em confronto” ou “morto durante troca de tiros”.

    Ontem – como hoje –, na prática, o preso não tinha nenhum direito a não querer dar entrevista ou ser fotografado ou filmado. Estava implícito que, se tentasse protestar, seria agredido. Era comum os policiais levantarem a cabeça do preso para as câmeras. Tanto daqueles que não queriam ter seu rosto exposto quanto daqueles que tinham sido tão torturados que não conseguiam manter a cabeça ereta sobre o pescoço.

    Esta era a cultura que imperava – e em geral as redações não estranhavam, ou quem estranhava preferia deixar por isso mesmo para não ter de se confrontar com a “naturalidade” reinante. Não me parece – pelo que assistimos nesse vídeo – que hoje a situação seja muito diferente.

    No início dos anos 90, um colega de jornal, Solano Nascimento (hoje professor do curso de jornalismo da UnB), que raramente cobria a área policial, presenciou um agente dar um tapa em um preso. Vários jornalistas, de outros veículos, testemunharam a cena. Mas só ele estranhou e denunciou a violência na sua matéria. O fato – o de um jornalista ter denunciado algo que para muitos era corriqueiro – causou espanto nas redações. Ainda assim, a polícia foi obrigada a abrir uma sindicância.

    Uma pesquisa realizada em 2009 por Marcos Rolim, Luiz Eduardo Soares e Silvia Ramos com profissionais de segurança pública mostrou que 20,5% dos quase 65 mil policiais que responderam ao questionário – 1 em cada 5 – afirmaram ter sofrido torturas em seu processo de formação. O curioso é que a cultura de violência também se fazia presente na formação dos repórteres de polícia, ainda que em proporções mais amenas. Uma espécie de “batismo de sangue” (no caso, sangue alheio) era motivo de orgulho e até de certa superioridade diante dos “frouxos” de outras editorias. Posso afirmar que isso persistiu até pelo menos a década de 90 – mas há motivos para supor que ainda exista em algumas regiões do país.

    Entre os jornalistas, a iniciação era feita de várias maneiras. Uma repórter contou que, em seu primeiro dia de trabalho, foi escoltada das 7h às 21h por um jornalista veterano, com um revólver calibre 38 na cintura (era a década de 80 e o “três-oitão” ainda vivia momentos de glória). Nestas 14 horas ininterruptas, eles acompanharam todas as mortes ocorridas na cidade – não só os assassinatos, mas também os suicídios. O veterano obrigou a “foca” a examinar os cadáveres, verificar o que havia nos bolsos, apalpar os “presuntos”, como ele chamava. Ao final do processo de violação dos corpos, ela tinha de relatar o número de buracos de bala e de perfurações de faca, sob os olhos cúmplices dos policiais responsáveis pela investigação.

    Nos deslocamentos entre um morto e outro, o veterano contava sobre como gostava de torturar “vagabundos” e lamentava o fim da ditadura. Quando a noite chegou, ele a levou ao plantão de polícia do pronto-socorro público. Lá ela viu uma mulher chegar gritando e chorando, com o corpo todo esfaqueado e o sangue saindo por todos os furos. Pela mão, a mulher levava um menino com cerca de cinco ou seis anos. Quando a jovem repórter viu os olhos do menino, deu alguns passos e desmaiou no corredor do hospital. Quando acordou, descobriu que tinha urinado na roupa durante o desmaio.

    O veterano a levou para casa no carro do jornal e, ao descobrir que ela morava sozinha, impôs sua autoridade para deixá-lo entrar, com a justificativa de que era sua responsabilidade profissional ter certeza de que ela, uma subordinada, ficaria bem. Enquanto a jornalista tomava banho, ele revistou a sua casa. Nada pior aconteceu porque ela arranjou um jeito de dizer que o sogro era professor universitário e a família do namorado deveria estar preocupada com o seu atraso. Por muitos meses ela sentiu-se violentada e não conseguia dormir sozinha em casa. Trocou as fechaduras da porta, lavou todas as suas roupas, porque o veterano repórter de polícia as tinha tocado, e botou fora tudo aquilo que não era documento, inclusive seus bichos de pelúcia.

    Assim eram as coisas há não tanto tempo atrás. E acredito que ainda sejam em algumas redações do país. A reportagem que gerou a polêmica não é um episódio isolado. Assim como a teia de responsáveis é ampla e não se restringe à repórter e ao apresentador. E, por fim, a realidade a que assistimos hoje é parte de um processo histórico da imprensa brasileira, com capítulos ainda obscuros. Basta lembrar que conhecemos os nomes dos torturadores e dos legistas que assinavam os laudos falsos da ditadura, mas desconhecemos o nome dos jornalistas que foram cúmplices do regime também nos porões da repressão.

    Uma linha de investigação interessante para um livro ou uma pesquisa acadêmica seria entender como a cultura da violência e a relação de promiscuidade de parte dos jornalistas de polícia com os aparatos de repressão da ditadura manteve-se e encontrou novas expressões a partir da retomada da democracia. Uma dessas expressões são os programas considerados sensacionalistas, mas com grande audiência, com reportagens como a que agora discutimos.

    Estabelece-se no país a tolerância à violação dos direitos dos presos e dos pobres, mesmo na democracia – bastando apenas fazer uma careta e dizer que os programas são “sensacionalistas”. Os “esclarecidos” dizem que não assistem “a esse lixo” – e isso seria suficiente. O “jornalismo sério” considera-se separado da ralé – e isso seria suficiente. Na prática, sabemos que, na guerra pela audiência, cada vez mais acirrada, a contaminação entre o jornalismo “sério” e o “sensacionalista” é crescente e estimulada. E, mesmo na imprensa considerada séria, parte dos jornalistas que cobrem a área, como se diz no jargão, continua “comendo na mão da polícia”. E não é uma parte tão pequena assim.

    Qual é a novidade? A grande – e boa – novidade é a capacidade de mobilização e de pressão pelas redes sociais. Até não muito tempo atrás, duvido que a apuração da responsabilidade de jornalistas como os do vídeo fosse sequer cogitada. Alertado por Fabrício Ramos, pelo Facebook, o vídeo foi postado em 21/5 no blog de Renato Roval. Em menos de 24 horas foi replicado em centenas de blogs e disseminado pelo Twitter, ganhando repercussão nacional.

    Se estamos discutindo esse episódio aqui é porque as pessoas estão usando a internet para exercer sua cidadania e se responsabilizar pela democracia, que vai muito além do voto. Usando os instrumentos da internet para exercer pressão legítima, forçando a quebra do corporativismo, o funcionamento das instituições e o cumprimento das leis. Não me parece que nos faltem leis – o que nos falta é justiça. E, para a parte mais frágil da população, acesso à Justiça.

    Na semana passada, os responsáveis pela condenação e humilhação públicas de um suspeito negro, pobre e analfabeto descobriram que os jornalistas não estão acima da lei. Enfim, uma boa notícia.

    Basta ligar a televisão para ter certeza de que nem essa jornalista, nem esse apresentador, nem essa rede de TV são os únicos a violar direitos previstos em lei, especialmente contra presos e contra favelados e moradores das periferias do Brasil. Especialmente, portanto, contra os mais frágeis e com menos acesso à Justiça. Vale a pena lembrar que o número de defensores públicos no Brasil é insuficiente – em São Paulo, por exemplo, segundo relatório feito pela Pastoral Carcerária Nacional e pelo Instituto Terra, Trabalho e Cidadania, há apenas 500 defensores públicos para prestar assistência jurídica à população carente. E quase 60 mil presos que nunca foram julgados.

    Como também sabemos, nenhum jornalista publica ou veicula o que quer. Para que reportagens como esta tenham espaço é preciso que exista antes uma estrutura disposta a permitir que os maus profissionais violem as leis. Em última instância, também quem anuncia seus produtos em programas que exibem esse tipo de reportagem está sendo conivente e estimulando a violação de direitos.

    A responsabilidade não acaba aí. Nos blogs, onde o vídeo foi denunciado como uma violação de Direitos Humanos, parte dos comentários dos leitores pode ser assim resumida: “Ah, mas ele não é nenhum inocente”. Ou: “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”. São afirmações estúpidas, mas elas ajudam a explicar por que esse tipo de abordagem tem audiência. Persiste ainda no Brasil uma ideia de condenação sem julgamento – e o linchamento público, via TV, é uma das formas mais apreciadas de exercer a barbárie. Até porque, dessa forma, ninguém precisa sujar as mãos de sangue.

    É preciso, porém, lembrar o óbvio: até ser julgado, um suspeito é um suspeito. E só o ritual da Justiça poderá dizer se ele é culpado ou inocente. E, mesmo culpado, ele vai cumprir a pena determinada pela lei, mas continuará a ter direitos. E esta é uma conquista da civilização – contra a barbárie.

    É também por causa da vontade de fazer “justiça” com as próprias mãos de parte da população que o mau jornalista se sente “autorizado” a se colocar no lugar de juiz e condenar um suspeito no tribunal midiático. Quem o legitima não são as leis tão duramente conquistadas no processo democrático, mas a audiência. Quem legitima o mau jornalismo é justamente esse tipo de comentário: “Ah, mas ele não é nenhum inocente” ou “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”.

    “Queria ver se fosse você que ele tivesse assaltado”.

    Para esse tipo de raciocínio valer e o mau jornalismo continuar tendo espaço é preciso que a sociedade decida que não existem leis no Brasil e que os suspeitos perdem todos os direitos e devem ser linchados sem julgamento, nas ruas ou na TV. E isso vale para todos – e também para aqueles que gostam de expressar sua sanha porque pensam estar a salvo da sanha alheia.

    Por sorte, não chegamos a esse ponto. Mas, para que violências como a que assistimos não se repitam, não basta punir quem as comete, é preciso que cada um saiba que, ao dar audiência para o mau jornalismo, está escolhendo a barbárie. O telespectador também tem responsabilidade. Cada um de nós tem responsabilidade. É assim numa democracia: a responsabilidade é compartilhada. Quem escolhe, se posiciona e se responsabiliza. E quem se omite também escolhe e se responsabiliza.

    Este episódio, que, repito, está longe de ser exceção, poderia ser usado para iluminar capítulos não contados, ou pouco contados, ou ainda mal contados da imprensa. É importante compreender que, historicamente, parte do jornalismo policial tem uma relação promíscua com a polícia. Desde sempre. Parte porque há grandes e decentes repórteres na história da crônica policial brasileira. Mas, arrisco-me a dizer, não representam a maioria.

    Na ditadura, parte dos jornalistas policiais foi conivente com a tortura dos presos políticos, da mesma maneira que já era conivente, antes, com a tortura dos presos comuns. E que, depois do fim da ditadura, continuou a ser conivente com a tortura largamente praticada até hoje nas cadeias e presídios do país. Há histórias escabrosas e ainda não bem contadas de repórteres que, inclusive, assistiam às sessões de tortura e até ajudavam a torturar. Estas só tomei conhecimento pela narrativa de colegas mais velhos – obviamente, nunca presenciei.

    Na transição democrática, nos anos 80, eu cheguei a conviver com jornalistas da editoria de polícia que andavam armados e achavam não só natural, mas desejável, a tortura de presos. Outros se limitavam a não denunciá-las. Era comum o repórter chegar à delegacia e ouvir a seguinte frase: “Espera um pouquinho, que estamos maquiando o elemento”.

    “Maquiar” o preso significava que estavam apagando as marcas de tortura, para que ele pudesse ser fotografado ou filmado. Algumas marcas, claro, restavam. E ninguém – nem repórter, nem fotógrafo, nem mesmo os leitores – achava estranho.

    É por causa dessa mentalidade, ainda hoje largamente disseminada entre a população brasileira, que as denúncias das torturas praticadas nas cadeias e prisões não causam revolta – para além das organizações de direitos humanos e alguns segmentos restritos da sociedade. Como se, ao ser condenado ou apenas suspeito de um crime, as pessoas perdessem todos os seus direitos, inclusive os fundamentais.

    Se a tortura de presos políticos durante a ditadura tem grande repercussão na classe média, a tortura contumaz dos presos comuns, praticada antes, durante e depois do regime militar, é tolerada por parte da população – até hoje. Sobre a tortura disseminada nas cadeias e prisões brasileiras, aliás, aguarda-se a divulgação do relatório da ONU, cujos resultados e recomendações estão nas mãos do governo federal desde fevereiro.

    Se no passado alguém estranhasse as marcas dos presos, bastava alegar “resistência à prisão” – “explicação” até hoje amplamente usada pelas polícias para justificar a morte de suspeitos. É assim que a pena de morte – punição inexistente na legislação brasileira – tem vigorado na prática no país. Suspeitos são executados pela polícia – e a justificativa é “morto ao resistir à prisão” ou “morto em confronto” ou “morto durante troca de tiros”.

    Ontem – como hoje –, na prática, o preso não tinha nenhum direito a não querer dar entrevista ou ser fotografado ou filmado. Estava implícito que, se tentasse protestar, seria agredido. Era comum os policiais levantarem a cabeça do preso para as câmeras. Tanto daqueles que não queriam ter seu rosto exposto quanto daqueles que tinham sido tão torturados que não conseguiam manter a cabeça ereta sobre o pescoço.

    Esta era a cultura que imperava – e em geral as redações não estranhavam, ou quem estranhava preferia deixar por isso mesmo para não ter de se confrontar com a “naturalidade” reinante. Não me parece – pelo que assistimos nesse vídeo – que hoje a situação seja muito diferente.

    No início dos anos 90, um colega de jornal, Solano Nascimento (hoje professor do curso de jornalismo da UnB), que raramente cobria a área policial, presenciou um agente dar um tapa em um preso. Vários jornalistas, de outros veículos, testemunharam a cena. Mas só ele estranhou e denunciou a violência na sua matéria. O fato – o de um jornalista ter denunciado algo que para muitos era corriqueiro – causou espanto nas redações. Ainda assim, a polícia foi obrigada a abrir uma sindicância.

    Uma pesquisa realizada em 2009 por Marcos Rolim, Luiz Eduardo Soares e Silvia Ramos com profissionais de segurança pública mostrou que 20,5% dos quase 65 mil policiais que responderam ao questionário – 1 em cada 5 – afirmaram ter sofrido torturas em seu processo de formação. O curioso é que a cultura de violência também se fazia presente na formação dos repórteres de polícia, ainda que em proporções mais amenas. Uma espécie de “batismo de sangue” (no caso, sangue alheio) era motivo de orgulho e até de certa superioridade diante dos “frouxos” de outras editorias. Posso afirmar que isso persistiu até pelo menos a década de 90 – mas há motivos para supor que ainda exista em algumas regiões do país.

    Entre os jornalistas, a iniciação era feita de várias maneiras. Uma repórter contou que, em seu primeiro dia de trabalho, foi escoltada das 7h às 21h por um jornalista veterano, com um revólver calibre 38 na cintura (era a década de 80 e o “três-oitão” ainda vivia momentos de glória). Nestas 14 horas ininterruptas, eles acompanharam todas as mortes ocorridas na cidade – não só os assassinatos, mas também os suicídios. O veterano obrigou a “foca” a examinar os cadáveres, verificar o que havia nos bolsos, apalpar os “presuntos”, como ele chamava. Ao final do processo de violação dos corpos, ela tinha de relatar o número de buracos de bala e de perfurações de faca, sob os olhos cúmplices dos policiais responsáveis pela investigação.

    Nos deslocamentos entre um morto e outro, o veterano contava sobre como gostava de torturar “vagabundos” e lamentava o fim da ditadura. Quando a noite chegou, ele a levou ao plantão de polícia do pronto-socorro público. Lá ela viu uma mulher chegar gritando e chorando, com o corpo todo esfaqueado e o sangue saindo por todos os furos. Pela mão, a mulher levava um menino com cerca de cinco ou seis anos. Quando a jovem repórter viu os olhos do menino, deu alguns passos e desmaiou no corredor do hospital. Quando acordou, descobriu que tinha urinado na roupa durante o desmaio.

    O veterano a levou para casa no carro do jornal e, ao descobrir que ela morava sozinha, impôs sua autoridade para deixá-lo entrar, com a justificativa de que era sua responsabilidade profissional ter certeza de que ela, uma subordinada, ficaria bem. Enquanto a jornalista tomava banho, ele revistou a sua casa. Nada pior aconteceu porque ela arranjou um jeito de dizer que o sogro era professor universitário e a família do namorado deveria estar preocupada com o seu atraso. Por muitos meses ela sentiu-se violentada e não conseguia dormir sozinha em casa. Trocou as fechaduras da porta, lavou todas as suas roupas, porque o veterano repórter de polícia as tinha tocado, e botou fora tudo aquilo que não era documento, inclusive seus bichos de pelúcia.

    Assim eram as coisas há não tanto tempo atrás. E acredito que ainda sejam em algumas redações do país. A reportagem que gerou a polêmica não é um episódio isolado. Assim como a teia de responsáveis é ampla e não se restringe à repórter e ao apresentador. E, por fim, a realidade a que assistimos hoje é parte de um processo histórico da imprensa brasileira, com capítulos ainda obscuros. Basta lembrar que conhecemos os nomes dos torturadores e dos legistas que assinavam os laudos falsos da ditadura, mas desconhecemos o nome dos jornalistas que foram cúmplices do regime também nos porões da repressão.

    Uma linha de investigação interessante para um livro ou uma pesquisa acadêmica seria entender como a cultura da violência e a relação de promiscuidade de parte dos jornalistas de polícia com os aparatos de repressão da ditadura manteve-se e encontrou novas expressões a partir da retomada da democracia. Uma dessas expressões são os programas considerados sensacionalistas, mas com grande audiência, com reportagens como a que agora discutimos.

    Estabelece-se no país a tolerância à violação dos direitos dos presos e dos pobres, mesmo na democracia – bastando apenas fazer uma careta e dizer que os programas são “sensacionalistas”. Os “esclarecidos” dizem que não assistem “a esse lixo” – e isso seria suficiente. O “jornalismo sério” considera-se separado da ralé – e isso seria suficiente. Na prática, sabemos que, na guerra pela audiência, cada vez mais acirrada, a contaminação entre o jornalismo “sério” e o “sensacionalista” é crescente e estimulada. E, mesmo na imprensa considerada séria, parte dos jornalistas que cobrem a área, como se diz no jargão, continua “comendo na mão da polícia”. E não é uma parte tão pequena assim.

    Qual é a novidade? A grande – e boa – novidade é a capacidade de mobilização e de pressão pelas redes sociais. Até não muito tempo atrás, duvido que a apuração da responsabilidade de jornalistas como os do vídeo fosse sequer cogitada. Alertado por Fabrício Ramos, pelo Facebook, o vídeo foi postado em 21/5 no blog de Renato Roval. Em menos de 24 horas foi replicado em centenas de blogs e disseminado pelo Twitter, ganhando repercussão nacional.

    Se estamos discutindo esse episódio aqui é porque as pessoas estão usando a internet para exercer sua cidadania e se responsabilizar pela democracia, que vai muito além do voto. Usando os instrumentos da internet para exercer pressão legítima, forçando a quebra do corporativismo, o funcionamento das instituições e o cumprimento das leis. Não me parece que nos faltem leis – o que nos falta é justiça. E, para a parte mais frágil da população, acesso à Justiça.

    Na semana passada, os responsáveis pela condenação e humilhação públicas de um suspeito negro, pobre e analfabeto descobriram que os jornalistas não estão acima da lei. Enfim, uma boa notícia.

    (Publicado na Revista Época em 28/05/2012)

    http://desacontecimentos.com/tag/chororo-na-delegacia/
    http://web.archive.org/web/20210828184047/https://desacontecimentos.com/tag/chororo-na-delegacia/

  • This has gotta stop August 28, 2021
  • Childhood (Documentary) August 28, 2021
  • École d’Humanité August 26, 2021

    This is the school you could have gone here in Switzerland but the madness of some humans or of many humans did not let you go there. In this video you can see, listen and feel all the people of the school, singing together, they are free and happy as it should be. May you find freedom soon. See you soon.

    Bringing the goats up the mountain for the summer.

  • A spot August 24, 2021

  • Perché non voglio sporcare August 23, 2021

    Perché non voglio sporcare il mio karma.
    Because I don’t want to soil my karma.

  • Nyoshul Khen Rinpoche August 22, 2021
  • Georgian Mood (Music) August 19, 2021
  • 2021.08.19 at 19:05:29 August 19, 2021

    Geneva

  • Elevenfinger Na Klongtoey August 17, 2021
  • Missing human August 15, 2021
  • Mass psychosis August 12, 2021
  • Free Assange August 11, 2021

    This video was produced by the Don’t Extradite Assange Campaign and released on their YouTube channel on June 10, 2021. We republished it today on our channel to raise more awareness on this case.

  • Paulie Zink August 6, 2021
  • Simon’s Cat August 6, 2021

    Today I remember this.

  • Tai Situpa Rinpoche August 5, 2021
  • Sadhguru August 3, 2021
  • The inconvenient truth August 2, 2021

  • Vandana Shiva August 1, 2021

July 2021

  • Not forgotten July 21, 2021

  • 21.07.2021 July 21, 2021

    Happy birthday to you

  • Beggin July 20, 2021
  • Sotus July 18, 2021

    I wish you are fine.

  • Opening Scene July 2, 2021
  • At school it’s slaves they train July 1, 2021

    This is just the old excuse that uses one guy to block what’s real
    And hide what others feel, no one gets a say
    Using it to cover shit, though no one thinks it’s right today
    They menace everyone, who won’t bow, obey.

    Yeah again it’s You Know Who . . . And no one speaks his name.
    Is it really only me, who’ll refuse to play this game?

    For the laws that just oppress, let them die . . . remove distress
    Expose the truths that no one wants to see
    It may mean we’re cursed to die, but if it works . . . We need to try!
    Release the chains that cause the misery.

    When you look back over time, while we would cheer our love sublime
    They drove many others out, who didn’t feel the same.
    Disgusted now, realizing it. A person’s brain
    is washed by shit. At school it’s slaves they train . . . isn’t this insane.

    Yeah again it’s You Know Who . . . And no one speaks his name.
    Is it really only me, who’ll refuse to play this game?

    For the laws that just oppress, let them die . . . remove distress
    Expose the truths that no one wants to see
    It may mean we’re cursed to die, but if it works . . . We need to try!
    Release the chains that hold us in misery.

    For the laws that just oppress, let them die . . . remove distress
    Expose the truths that no one wants to see
    (Love is different than fear)
    It may mean we’re cursed to die, but if it works . . . We need to try!
    Release the chains that hold us in misery.
    (You’ll rot in hell waiting on their promise)

June 2021

  • Nina Simon June 30, 2021

    Stars, they come and go
    They come fast, they come slow
    They go like the last light of the sun, all in a blaze
    All you see is glory
    But it gets lonely there, when there’s no one there to share
    You can shake it away
    If you hear a story
    People lust for fame
    Like athletes in a game
    We break their collarbones and come up swingin’
    Some of them are crowned
    Some of them are downed
    Some are lost and never found
    But most have seen it all
    They live their lives in sad cafés and music halls
    And they always have a story
    Some make it when they’re young
    Before the world has done its dirty job
    And later on someone will say, “You’ve had your day
    Now you must make way”
    Don’t they always?
    But you’ll never know the pain
    Of using a name you never owned
    Or the years forgetting what you know too well
    That you, who gave the crown, have been let down
    You try to make amends
    Without defending, perhaps pretending
    You never saw the eyes of young men at 25
    Who followed as you walked, asked for autographs
    Kissed you on the cheek
    You never could believe they really loved you, never
    Some make it when they’re old
    Perhaps they have a soul they’re not afraid to bare
    Perhaps there’s nothing there
    But anyway that isn’t what I meant to say
    I meant to tell about a story
    Since we all have stories
    But I can’t remember it anyway
    So I’ll tell about the mood that’s in the United States today
    And permeating even Switzerland
    It goes…
    But I’ll continue anyway until I get it together
    Some women have a body men would want to see
    And so they put it on display, some people play a fine guitar
    I could listen to them play all day
    But anyway
    I’m trying to tell my story
    Janis Ian told it very well
    Janis Joplin told it even better
    Billie Holiday even told it even better
    We always, we always
    We always have a story
    The latest story that I know is the one that I’m supposed to go out with
    And the latest story that I know is the one that I’m supposed to go out with
    And the latest story that I know is the one that I’m supposed to go out with
    And the latest story that I know is the one that I’m supposed to go out…
    Feelings
    Nothing more than feelings
    Feelings
    Nothing more than feelings
    Feelings of love, you know that?
    And we get to the middle
    Where we have forgotten our feelings of love
    You will help me, huh?
    Teardrops falling down on my face
    Trying to forget all my feelings of love
    Feelings, I’m not makin’ ma- fun of the man
    I do not believe the conditions that produced a situation
    That demanded a song like that
    Oh, come on, clap
    Damn it, what’s wrong with you?
    For all my life I’ll feel it
    I wish I’d never seen it
    It can’t possibly come again
    Feelings, come on
    Woa-woa-woa-woa, feelings
    Woa-woa-woa, feelings
    Again in my arms
    Feelings
    Feelings that I’ve never met you
    Feelings that I’ve never even saw you
    Again in my heart
    Trying to forget my
    Feelings of love
    Feelings
    I swear for all my life I’ll feel it, oh yeah
    I wish I never lived this long
    Hope this feeling never comes again
    Feelings
    Feelings like I never lost you
    And feelings like I never really had you
    Here in my arms
    Come on, let’s hit the climax
    Feelings, you know the song, come on
    Woa-woa-woa-woa, feelings
    Woa-woa-woa, feelings
    Again in my arms
    Feelings
    Woa-woa, feelings
    So I’m not gon’ let you go so soon
    And so embarrassingly soft
    So let’s please do the chorus
    Feelings
    Woa-woa-woa (feelings)
    Woa-woa-woa, feelings
    Again in my arms
    Woa-woa-woa, feed me, feed me, feed me
    (Woa-woa-woa, feelings)
    Again in (my arms)
    Here in my heart
    You’ll aways stay
    Here in my heart
    No matter what the words may say
    You will stay here in my heart
    No matter what the day
    You will stay here in my heart
    No matter what they say
    No matter what they compose or do
    No matter what the drugs may do
    What songs may do, what people may do
    Or machines will do to you
    I will always have my feelings
    Nothing can destroy that
    ‘Cause I know that that is all that there is, at the base
    For you
    Good night

  • After the rain June 8, 2021

    Chaumont, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

May 2021

  • Kapok May 20, 2021

    Taking a walk in Chiang Mai University

  • 21 Praises to Tara May 16, 2021
  • Durian May 13, 2021


    How many days non-stop, did we live eating only durian? Some people are saying it is not possible. Off course it is possible.

  • Breakfast May 12, 2021


    Breakfast with Harry
    Tefal KO260810

April 2021

  • Finding peace? April 28, 2021

    The Four Immeasurables Prayer

    Sanskrit (transliteration):
    Sarve satvāḥ sūkhaiścaiva yuktāḥ syuḥ sūkhakāraṇaiḥ ।
    Bhavantu satataṃ muktā duḥkhācca duḥkhakāraṇāt ।
    Kadāpi vaṃcitā na syurduḥkhahīna mahāsukhāt ।
    Dūrādūra dveṣarāga muktopekśāsthitā hi syuḥ ।।

    English:
    May all beings be happy and have the cause of happiness;
    May they be free of suffering and the cause of suffering;
    May they never be parted from happiness without suffering;
    May they dwell in equanimity without attachment and hatred to those near and far.

  • Penguin to his judges April 10, 2021

    15 มีนาคม 2564

    ถึงผู้พิพากษาผู้ทรงเกียรติทุกท่าน

    ประมวลกฎหมายอาญามาตรา 112 เป็นกฎหมายที่โหดร้ายป่าเถื่อนและล้าหลัง ไม่เป็นที่ยอมรับจากนานาชาติ และยังแต่ความเสื่อมเสียให้แก่ประเทศชาติและสถาบันกษัตริย์ในสายตาประชาคมโลก กฎหมายมาตราดังกล่าวตีตราให้การวิพากษ์วิจารณ์สถาบันกษัตริย์เป็นความผิด แม้ว่าข้อความวิพากษ์วิจารณ์นั้นจะพิสูจน์ได้ว่าเป็นความจริงก็ยังเป็นความผิด และยังมีบทลงโทษรุนแรง จำคุกได้สูงสุดถึง 15 ปี นับเป็นกฎหมายที่ฝืนต่อกฎแห่งธรรมชาติทั้งปวง เป็นการยกสถาบันกษัตริย์ให้เป็นเทวดา กระทำสิ่งใดก็ไม่ผิด พร้อมทั้งกดประชาชนลงเป็นไพร่ทาส ไม่มีสิทธิไม่มีเสียงจะพูดเพื่อความเป็นธรรมของตน แม้จะเห็นเทวดาสูบเลือดสูบเนื้อตนต่อหน้าก็ตาม และยังถือเป็นการบีบความคิดและทรมานสิทธิเสรีภาพของคนไทยอย่างทารุณ ไม่ต่างกับการตอกเล็บบีบขมับ ซึ่งเป็นวิธีการลงทัณฑ์ผู้เห็นต่างทางการเมืองในยุคโบราณ

    ประมวลกฎหมายอาญามาตรา 112 ยังเป็นมะเร็งร้ายที่กัดกินประชาธิปไตยไทยมาโดยตลอด ในช่วงทศวรรษแห่งความขัดแย้งทางการเมืองที่ผ่านมา มาตรา 112 ถูกใช้เป็นอาวุธทิ่มแทงทำร้ายฝ่ายตรงข้ามทางการเมืองมานับครั้งไม่ถ้วน โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่ง หลัง พ.ศ. 2557 ซึ่งเป็นปีที่เผด็จการประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชาอ้างเหตุแห่งการปกป้องสถาบันกษัตริย์ก่อรัฐประหารล้มล้างรัฐบาลประชาธิปไตย มีผู้คนหลายร้อยคนที่รักชาติ หวงแหนประชาธิปไตย และไม่ยอมจำนนต่ออำนาจเผด็จการ และยังถูกศาลจองจำในนามสถาบันกษัตริย์ และถูกปฏิเสธสิทธิในการประกันตัวไปสู้คดี ทั้งที่ยังไม่ถูกพิพากษาให้มีความผิดตามข้อหาใดๆ

    ข้าพเจ้าขอตั้งคำถามต่อท่านผู้พิพากษาผู้ทรงเกียรติว่า ในเมื่อสถาบันตุลาการมีหน้าที่ระงับความขัดแย้งโดยการอำนวยความยุติธรรมให้ประชาชน เพราะเหตุใด ท่านจึงสร้างความขัดแย้งโดยการร่วมกับเผด็จการปล้นความยุติธรรมไปจากมือประชาชน และในเมื่อศาลสถิตยุติธรรม เป็นสถานที่แห่งความจริงที่จะต้องนำความจริงมาพิสูจน์ เหตุใดท่านจึงจองจำความจริงไว้ ไม่ให้ความจริงได้ประกันตัวออกไปพิสูจน์ตนเอง หรือพวกท่านจะเกลียดชังและหวาดกลัวความจริงจนต้องรีบนำความจริงไปคุมขังไว้ให้เกิดความทรมาน และหวังว่าความทุกข์ทรมานนั้นจะสามารถบดขยี้ความจริงให้แหลกสลายไปได้

    แต่ความจริงย่อมเป็นความจริง ไม่ว่าจะอยู่ในกรงขัง ในเครื่องทรมาน หรือที่หลักประหาร ความจริงก็ยังคงเป็นความจริง ไม่ว่าท่านจะจับข้าพเจ้าไปคุมขังให้เกิดความทุกข์ทรมานมากเพียงใด ความทุกข์ทรมานนั้นก็ไม่อาจทำลายความจริงได้ ข้าพเจ้าจึงยินดีที่จะรับความทุกข์ทรมานที่พวกท่านจะยัดเยียดให้ และจะยังขอทรมานตนเองเพิ่มด้วย ดังนั้น นับแต่วันนี้เป็นต้นไป ข้าพเจ้าจะขออดอาหาร ประทังชีพด้วยน้ำ น้ำหวาน และนมเท่านั้น ไปจนกว่าท่านจะคืนสู่สามัญสำนึกโดยการคืนสิทธิประกันตัวสู้คดีให้กับข้าพเจ้า ให้กับผู้กล่าวหาคดีมาตรา 112 และให้กับผู้ถูกกล่าวหาทางการเมืองทุกคน หรือจนกว่าชีวิตของข้าพเจ้าจะหาไม่

    ข้าพเจ้าไม่ได้มีเจตนาจะปลิดชีวิตของตน แต่จะขอทรมานตนเอง เพื่อให้ความทรมานที่เกิดกับข้าพเจ้าเป็นประจักษ์พยานแห่งความอยุติธรรมที่เกิดขึ้น เป็นประกายไฟสะกิดมโนสำนึกของพวกท่านและเป็นข้อพิสูจน์ว่า ความจริงไม่เกรงกลัวต่อความทุกข์ทรมานใดๆ หากข้าพเจ้าต้องสละชีวิตลง ข้าพเจ้าก็ยินดีสละ เพื่อวันหนึ่งประเทศของเราจะไม่มีกฎหมายมาตรา 112 ไม่มีใครต้องตกเป็นนักโทษทางการเมือง และ 3 ข้อเรียกร้องจะบรรลุเป็นจริง ประเทศไทยจะได้เป็นของคนไทยทุกคนอย่างเสมอภาคโดยสมบูรณ์

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  • Practices of a Bodhisattva March 14, 2021

    The 37 Practices of a Bodhisattva

    By Ngulchu Thogme

    Commentary by Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche, Copyright, Marpa Foundation 2001 Ashland, OR 97520

    Commentary based on an oral translation by Suzanne Schefczky, Taiwan 1993.  Special thanks to Ari Goldfield for his careful review of the root texts, and to Pema Clark and Yeshe Parke for proofreading the Commentary with care and devotion.

    PLEASE NOTE: THIS TEXT IS A DHARMA TEACHING, AS WITH ALL DHARMA TEXTS, IT SHOULD NOT BE PLACED ON A FLOOR OR OTHER DIRTY PLACES. ONE SHOULD NOT LICK THEIR FINGERS TO TURN THE PAGES NOR PLACE MUNDANE MATERIALS NOR OBJECTS ON TOP OF THIS DOCUMENT. AND IT SHOULD BE PLACED ON THE TOP SHELF OF A BOOKCASE OR OTHER CLEAN PLACE FOR DHARMA MATERIALS.  IF YOU NO LONGER WISH TO KEEP IN WRITTEN FORM, PLEASE RETURN TO A BUDDHIST CENTER OR DESTROY BY FIRE WHERE APPROPRIATE.

     

    The basic structure of the text illustrates the complete path of the Bodhisattva in 43 verses, which include a verse for each of the 37 Practices with an additional 2 verses in the beginning and 4 at the end.  The first 2 verses are the traditional ones which express homage to a deity, the embodiement of enlightened qualites and then state the purpose for writing the text and the author’s commitment to do so. The main body of the text is divided into 3 parts, the first which deals with the causes that give rise to bodhichitta (the mind of awakening). The mind training of a superior individual is discussed in the second part of the text, where the central topic is how to engender supreme Bodhichitta. In this section there are 5 main divisions that give advice on how to develop Bodhichitta and how to keep it from degenerating.  First one should realize the equality of self and other and learn how to exchange one’s own happiness for another’s suffering.  Secondly the text shows how to bring all situations of worldy life, including obscuring emotions and mistaken views onto the path, or how to integrate them into one’s practice.  The third is how to practice the six perfections. The fourth describes how to work with one’s negative side and failures, and finally, there is a summary and dedication. The third main section is the conclusion, which contains a recapitulation of the purpose of the text, the reasons that establish its integrty in relation to the tradition of the teachings, an aplogy for any errors that might be found and a dedication.  In summary, Ngulchu Thogme has given the entire structure of a Bodhisattva’s path: from first engendering bodhichitta in one’s mindstream, to maintaining, and then further developing this bodhichitta up to the level of enlightenment.

    When reciting the 37 Practices, as a Dharma practice it is recommended to read the Prostration before Practice #1 and all Epilogues A-E after Practice #37.

     

    Aspiration of Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche

    May the virtue that arises from working with this text
    Contribute to the liberation and happiness of all beings.

    Let us begin by developing the enlightened attitude- that we want to attain the perfect state of Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings, in number as vast as the sky.  To accomplish this state, we must diligently engage in listening, reflecting, and meditating upon the genuine teachings.  In general, the tradition of the Mahayana contains two types of practices: one purifies obscurations of the mind; the other develops a sound motivation, a good attitude.  The former practice, in which we purify our mind of mental obscurations and stains, is the “progressive stages of meditation on emptiness,” about which I wrote a book of that name. These progressive stages progressively lead the meditator from the relative to the ultimate. This text fits into the latter category.  Its title in Tibetan is The Thirty-seven Practices of a Bodhisattva:  a Summary of the Heart Essence of a Bodhisattva’s Conduct. This full title indicates two points: first that the text condenses all the Mahayana sutras, which teach the conduct of a Bodhisattva; and second, that it summarizes the heart essence of a Bodhisattva’s conduct, of which there are thirty-seven main practices.  In Tibetan, the word for “practice” literally translates as “to bring into experience.”  So, 37 practices can actually be brought into experience. While The Thirty-seven Practices of a Bodhisattva contains a few stanzas on the progressive stages of meditation on emptiness, the text deals primarily with meditation on the relative.

     

    Beginning of Text

    The Practices themselves are in bold italics, the commentary is in normal font following each stanza.


    Prostration

    Namo Lokeshvaraya.
    You see that all phenomena neither come nor go.
    Still you strive solely for the benefit of beings.
    Supreme Guru and Protector Chenrezig,
    to you I continually bow with body, speech, and mind.

    Namo Lokeshvaraya is a Sanskrit phrase that we use in prostrating to the Tibetan deity, Chenrezig, the Lord of the World.  Chenrezig (“you”) is the Noble One who dwells on the bhumis.  Chenrezig has seen that on an absolute level no phenomena of samsara and nirvana exist in their own essence. Therefore, he realizes that phenomena neither arise nor cease, neither come nor go. Though realizing that phenomena have no self- nature, Chenrezig still works diligently on behalf of others.  He has abandoned self-interest and strives only to benefit beings.

    Ngulchu Thogme, the author of this text, addresses his own lama as “Supreme Guru,” whom he knows to be inseparable from the Protector Chenrezig.  He acknowledges their union in one breath by prostrating continuously to his Supreme Guru and Protector Chenrezig. By “continuously,” Ngulchu Thogme indicates that from now until he has reached enlightenment, with the three doors of his body, speech, and mind he will always respectfully bow down.

    The Bodhisattva Ngulchu Thogme, who composed this text, was an amazing being. His life contains wonderful stories of great loving kindness and compassion.  I cannot recount all the marvelous episodes here, but will choose a particularly significant one.

    When just a small boy in Tibet, on an especially frigid day Thogme’s parents dressed him warmly and sent him out to play.  Not long after, they saw their son outside completely naked. When questioned, Thogme explained that he had come upon a hill of freezing ants; wanting to keep them warm, he had sheltered them with his own clothes. Clearly, even as a child Thogme’s loving kindness and compassion were extensive, signaling that in a previous life he had meditated on bodhichitta. Similarly, if we meditate strongly on loving kindness and compassion in this life, in a future life we, too, may display Thogme’s remarkable qualities in our early youth.

    Author’s intention

    The perfect Buddhas, sources of benefit and happiness,
    Arise from accomplishing the genuine Dharma.
    Since that in turn depends on knowing how to practice,
    The practices of a Bodhisattva shall be explained.

    The Buddhas are the source of benefit and happiness. Benefit refers to a temporary state within samsara. Practicing the genuine Dharma benefits us temporarily by preventing us from being reborn in the lower realms- in the hell realms, the animal realm, and so on. By practicing the Dharma, we can gain a precious human rebirth in which we again practice the Dharma.

    While benefit is a temporary condition within samsara, happiness refers to the ultimate state of liberation and omniscience. The Buddhas are the origin of both, namely temporary benefit and ultimate happiness.

    How did the Perfect Buddhas, the source of all happiness and benefit, themselves arise? From having practiced the genuine Dharma. To help us accomplish this aim, Thogme intends to describe the practices of male and female Bodhisattvas.

    Practice 1
    Commitment

    Now that you have obtained a precious human body, the great boat so difficult to find,

    In order to free yourself and others from the ocean of samsara, 

    To listen, reflect, and meditate with diligence day and night 

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.


    This precious human body with its eight freedoms and ten endowments is rare and difficult to obtain. Not all human bodies are precious because not all people study the Dharma. A precious human body indicates an individual with great faith in the Dharma, the wisdom with which to analyze and comprehend its teachings, and the diligence and joyful effort with which to practice it.  The body is compared to a great boat able to carry us across the ocean of samsara, across the suffering of this existence.  With this body, we can attain peace for ourselves and, more important, for others.  Our motivation is to carry all sentient beings across the ocean of the three realms of existence.

    Thus, we promise that day and night, without laziness or distraction, we will listen, reflect, and meditate on the genuine Dharma.  First, we listen. Then we use our intelligence to analyze what we have heard-we reflect.  Finally, we meditate upon what we have heard and analyzed. This is how a Bodhisattva practices.

    The Tibetan phrase for precious human body actually says “the freedoms and the endowments,” a reference to the eight freedoms and the ten endowments that compose it. This is not the time or place to explain these factors, but Jamgon Kongtru Lodro Thaye’s The Torch of Certainty summarizes them; and Gampopa’s Jewel Ornament of Liberation presents an extensive explanation.

    Practice 2
    Detaching from passion, aggression, and hatred


    Passion towards friends churns like water.
    Hatred towards enemies burns like fire.
    Through dark ignorance, one forgets what to adopt and what to reject.
    To abandon one’s homeland is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Like one wave of water following hard upon the other, the more one is drawn towards friends, the more one’s passions increase. The basis for this attachment is taking friends to be truly existent. When fire burns, it consumes all the fuel that feeds it. In the same way, hatred towards enemies is like a fire that consumes one’s mind.  In the grasp of attachment and aversion, passion and hatred, one forgets what to adopt and what to reject. This forgetfulness is described as the darkness of ignorance.  There are two ways to give up one’s homeland. One is by directly abandoning it, just packing up and departing.  The other is to relinquish one’s attachment to home by not taking it to be truly existent. The latter is the more important. The homeland in some places is called the fatherland, in others the motherland.  It is the land of our birth or any country to which we are attached. We are bound not by the country itself, but by taking it as real. Therefore, it is very important to know that the fatherland, motherland, or homeland does not truly exist.

    Gampopa was born in a place called Dhagpo, where the circumstances for practice were so favorable that he stayed there, obtained high realization, and even came to be called Dhagpo Rinpoche, so closely associated was he with that place. Though Gampopa remained where he was born because it benefited his Dharma practice, he stayed without attachment.  But if one’s homeland does not provide suitable conditions for practicing Dharma, if it is a place of disputes and fights, then it is advisable to physically leave it.

     

    Practice 3
    Relying on solitude

     

    Giving up negative places, Mental afflictions gradually decrease.

    With no distractions, virtuous activities naturally increase.

    When mind becomes clear, Certainty in the Dharma is born.

    To rely on solitude is the practice of a Bodhisattva

     

    Negative places are those where one cannot practice the Dharma at all, or where unfavorable conditions make one neglect practice. In giving up such places, afflictions will subside. They will not be eliminated all at once, but will gradually diminish-first the coarse and then, one after the other, the subtle ones as well. When you are alone in an isolated place, distractions caused by outside objects wane, while virtuous activities of practicing the genuine Dharma naturally grow. Solitude clears the mind and sharpens awareness.  From this mental clarity, certainty and deep trust in the Dharma are born.   Male and female Bodhisattvas do well to occasionally seek solitude.

    To reduce mental afflictions, abandoning negative places benefits both the beginning practitioner and the Bodhisattva who is an ordinary being. But if one is an Arya Bodhisattva who dwells on a bhumi, then there is no need to abandon places of negativity. It is actually preferable for Bodhisattvas who know how to take negative places to the path remain where they are.

    Some Bodhisattvas take birth in countries where conditions for Dharma practice are not very good.  For the benefit of bringing the Dharma there, they do not abandon their fatherland. For example, Marpa the Translator traveled to India three times. The first time, he studied in India for twelve years, the second time for six years, and the third time for three years-twenty-one years in all. He did this to bring Buddhism to his homeland, an activity in accord with Naropa’s prediction that Marpa would return to Lhodrak, the land of his birth, in order to spread the Dharma. That is exactly what he did: Through Marpa, the Dharma was heard, analyzed, and meditated on in his own country. Other Bodhisattvas give up their country to benefit beings elsewhere. For instance, Milarepa’s student, Rechungpa, was born far from Lhasa.  But as Jetsun Milarepa predicted, Rechungpa went to Yarlung, near Lhasa, and built a monastery called Lharo Dolgyi Gompa, where many beings studied and practiced Dharma.  Rechungpa’s path was the opposite of Marpa’s in that he left his own land to benefit people. Some Bodhisattvas are able to practice the Dharma precisely because they have lost their country and all their possessions to enemies.  In such a way the Lord of Yogins, Milarepa, was deprived of everything. His painful circumstances brought him to the Dharma.  Therefore, he attributed great acts of kindness to his enemies, because through them he became a Dharma practitioner.

    On the ultimate level, Milarepa realized the equality of friends and enemies.  On the relative level, he developed pure love and compassion for all sentient beings, friends, and enemies alike. As a result of his bodhichitta, even Milarepa’s worst enemies became his disciples.  We, too, must meditate on loving kindness and compassion for all sentient beings, without distinction.  Maybe we can develop bodhichitta in this life, maybe not. If not, there is a good chance it will arise in a future life.

    Practice 4
    Abandoning attachment to this life


    Old friends and relatives will separate.

    Possessions gained with effort will be left behind.

    Consciousness, the guest, will leave the guesthouse of the body.

    To let go of this life is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Death will separate us from all our friends and relatives, no matter how long we have been connected, no matter how deep our bond may be.  Should someone ask why it is necessary to relinquish attachment to this life, the inevitability of death is the first reason.  The second is that at the time of death, regardless of the extent of our riches or how hard we have worked to accumulate them, all material possessions, all wealth- everything- will be relinquished. The third reason is that the body is a kind of hotel in which mental consciousness, the mind, temporarily resides.  When we die, the consciousness departs, and the body is put in a coffin, then buried or burned. Therefore, there is no benefit in clinging to this body.

    For these three reasons, the practice of a Bodhisattva is to mentally discard this life. This attitude does not mean actually giving it up. It suggests developing an attitude of renunciation.  By realizing that this life is just like a dream and an illusion, you can abandon attachment to it.

    In Tibet, human corpses were discarded in four ways. The first accorded with the Vajrayana.  The body was cremated and a fire puja, or ceremony, performed to clear away negative obscurations. The second tradition was to throw the corpse into the water and offer it to the fish as an act of generosity. The third tradition, which originated in China, was to bury the body as quickly as possible in order to purify the place of death, so that afterwards it would not harm those who lived there.  According to this tradition, when someone died, a burial expert was immediately summoned to determine the most auspicious burial site. By consulting this specialist and precisely carrying out his or her instructions, the family believed that benefit instead of harm would descend upon them. The fourth method was to feed the corpse to vultures.

    This act was performed to benefit the vultures because these birds do not kill to eat; they depend on carrion for their survival.  Offering corpses to the vultures was also regarded as an act of generosity.

    One of the largest charnel grounds in Tibet was at Sera Gompa, close to Lhasa. So busy was this charnel ground that the vultures there fed on corpses every day. It is still like that. If you have the opportunity to visit Tibet, go to Sera Gompa, watch how the bodies are chopped into parts and how the vultures come to eat. It is a good opportunity to meditate on impermanence.

    A charnel ground in Drikung was so famous that Tibetans brought their dead from afar to have them consumed by the Drikung vultures. Before roads were built, the bereaved would place the corpse on a yak and travel as long as fifteen days, sometimes longer, to reach Drikung.  Regardless of the difficulties, offspring considered they had disposed of their parent’s body auspiciously by offering it to the vultures of Drikung. Nowadays, a road and the availability of cars make the journey much easier.

     

    Practice 5
    Giving up negative friendships

    When friendship with someone
    Causes the three poisons to increase,
    Degrades the activities of listening, reflecting, and meditating,
    And destroys loving kindness and compassion,
    To give up such a friendship
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    If you are a special being who possesses skillful means, you can carry all mental poisons and afflictions onto the path.  That is, you can use them as a basis for practice.  But if you are an ordinary person, then associating with negative friends will cause your three poisons to increase.  This is the first reason to give up negative friendships. The second reason is to prevent the activities of listening, reflecting, and meditating from degenerating. And the third reason is that even if you have already developed loving kindness and compassion, the influence of a negative friend will impair these positive qualities and will hinder you from practicing them. These are the three reasons to give up negative friendships.

    To clarify the respective meaning of “ordinary being” and  “special being,” let us use an analogy:  Consider the vast amount of waste eliminated by the inhabitants of a large city. Ordinary beings are disgusted by sewage and want to be rid of it.  It is dirty, it smells, it breeds disease. But the farmer is a special being grateful to obtain what everyone else rejects.  His skill allows him to use this  “waste” to fertilize his fields and make them more productive so that he can reap an abundant harvest.  So you see there are two attitudes toward waste products and what to do with them.

    It is the same way with the five afflictions. While ordinary beings must rid themselves of afflictions, the skillful individual can carry them onto the path and transform them into the five wisdoms.  For example, the Vajrayana teaches a practice called “Clear Light Meditation” that transforms the affliction of mental dullness into clarity while one sleeps.  Using this practice, an Indian mahasiddha named Lawapa realized Mahamudra by meditating in his sleep for twelve years by the side of a busy road.  This is how to take mental dullness onto the path. If you’re a skillful sleeper, then Clear Light Meditation is the ideal practice for you.

    Practice 6
    Relying on a spiritual friend

    When in reliance on someone, your defects wane
    And your positive qualities grow like the waxing moon,
    To cherish such a spiritual friend even more than your own body
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    The “someone” mentioned is the spiritual friend. If, by relying on a spiritual friend whom you deeply respect, your defects, and afflictions, negative karma, suffering, and so, on diminish, then this is a sign to continue your reliance. “Positive qualities” refer to the qualities of the bhumis and of the paths. They also refer to qualities that develop from listening, reflecting, and meditating. If such virtues increase like the waxing moon, these are also signs to rely on such a person.

    Because your relationship with the genuine spiritual friend decreases your afflictions and increases your good qualities, you should consider this friend as even more precious than your own body. Examples of how to rely on a spiritual friend are the way Tilopa relied on Naropa, and the way the great yogi Milarepa relied on Marpa.  Naropa had to surmount twenty-four hardships, twelve small and twelve great. For examples of how Milarepa relied on his teacher, read his life story.

     

    Practice 7
    Seeking refuge

    Themselves captives in the prison of samsara,
    Whom can the worldly gods protect?
    Therefore, to seek refuge in those who do not deceive,
    the Three Jewels, Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Worldy gods like Brahma, Ishvara, and Vishnu are themselves prisoners of samsara, bound by afflictions, karma, and suffering.   Thus, they have no ability to protect other beings. For refuge, one must go to true protectors. Only the three Rare and Supreme Ones-the Rare and Supreme Buddha, the Rare and Supreme Dharma, and the Rare and Supreme Sangha-are able to offer refuge. They are rare because they are difficult to find in this worldly realm. They are supreme because there is no higher protection to be found. The protection offered by the three Rare and Supreme Ones does not deceive.  This is not a case where one believes they protect, but in the end they do not; or where they assure you they protect, but in the end cannot. Since only the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha offer unfailing protection, the practice of a Bodhisattva is to take refuge in these Three Jewels.

    Throughout Buddhist texts, the qualities of the three Rare and Supreme Ones are explained repeatedly in great detail.  In one text called The Mahayana Uttaratantra Shastra (published by Snow Lion under the title Buddha Nature), of the seven vajra points, the first three concern the qualities of the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha.  I propose that you read this text again and again in order to understand it well. In brief, what are the qualities of the three Rare and Supreme Ones? The qualities of the Buddha are mainly two- the perfection of abandonment and the perfection of realization.  The quality of the Dharma is that it is a remedy against affliction, suffering, and confused appearances. The quality of the Sangha is friendship. Sangha is a community of practitioners who help us practice the Dharma and the friends who accompany us on the Dharma path. This is a brief explanation of all the qualities. If we think Dharma is books, something outside ourselves, we are mistaken. Genuine Dharma is the process of actualizing within our minds the wisdom that realizes emptiness and selflessness. Such wisdom overcomes all confused appearances and afflictions.  This is real Dharma. It is like recognizing a dream for what it is, so that in the dream state we do not suffer from being burned by fire or drowned in water. Dharma is the remedy to overcome our actual afflictions and actual suffering because it enables us to realize emptiness and selflessness.

    Refuge is of two kinds, relative and absolute. Relative refuge arises when we see that samsara has the nature of suffering and we develop complete trust in that recognition. We come to fear samsara and seek refuge from it. And who is able to protect us? Only the three Rare and Supreme Ones have this capacity. However, if we take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha in such a way, this is relative refuge.  Why?  It is refuge based on concepts; it involves thoughts. Ultimate refuge, by contrast, is the realization of emptiness, the selflessness of persons and of phenomena. If we realize emptiness, we actualize ultimate refuge.  When ultimate refuge arises, all our afflictions and suffering are self-liberated.

    Practice 8
    Relinquishing negative actions

    The suffering of the lower realms, so difficult to bear,
    Is the fruit of wrong deeds, so the Buddha taught.
    Therefore, even at the cost of your life,
    Never to commit negative actions
    Is the conduct of a Bodhisattva. 

     

    Beings in the hell realms suffer from extreme heat and cold. Hungry ghosts suffer from hunger and thirst.  Animals suffer from stupidity.  Suffering is not the creation of gods or devils, nor does it arise without causes or conditions.  Suffering is the inevitable consequence of negative actions.  Therefore, it is better to die than to commit them. At a deeper level, the suffering of the lower realms is just confused appearance that arises from habitual tendencies. It is the same as the example of the suffering in a dream. This is why the Mahayana and the Vajrayana assert that suffering does not truly exist.

     

    Practice 9
    Striving for unchanging liberation

    Like dew on the tip of a blade of grass
    Happiness in the three worlds evaporates in a single instant.
    To strive for the supreme state of liberation that never changes
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    The reference to the three worlds can be interpreted as the subterranean world where the nagas abide, the earth where humans and animals live, and the sky that is the abode of the gods. Or, this term might be understood to encompass the three realms: desire, form, and formless. Regardless of interpretation, the nature of happiness within all these worlds is temporary. Whether that of gods or humans, happiness is as evanescent as a dewdrop on a blade of grass. One instant and it is gone. Since this happiness is impermanent and ever changing, we need to strive for an unchanging happiness, which in Buddhism is the changeless state of liberation. A Buddhist practices the Dharma to achieve a result.  Were there no result, why bother to practice? The Dharma describes three types of results.  The first is gaining the happy realms or the happy state. The second is achieving liberation.  The last is attaining Buddhahood.

    There are those who practice Dharma to avoid the suffering of rebirth in hell or as a hungry ghost or as an animal. Fear of the lower realms motivates them to strive for a favorable rebirth as a god, or in a deity realm where they can continue to practice the Dharma.  The person in this category may also seek the benefit of longevity to have more time to practice or to accumulate the means to practice in ease. The motivation of practitioners who follow the Dharma for these reasons is considered inferior because the result sought is temporary.

    A person motivated by desire for liberation attains his or her goal by understanding that samsara has no essence.  Since it has no essence, it can be totally abandoned. Liberation is the highest state sought by the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas- that is, by Shravakayana practitioners. A practitioner seeking liberation embodies a medium level of motivation.

    One who strives for Buddhahood is endowed with supreme motivation-the desire to attain complete and perfect enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings. Buddhahood emerges as the result of practicing the Mahayana, wherein one cuts the root of existence through the superior intelligence that realizes emptiness. While Mahayana practice does, in fact, liberate the practitioner from samsara, the great compassion it engenders motivates the Bodhisattva to remain in existence to benefit all sentient beings. This is the attitude of the Mahayana, its supreme motivation.  In his text, The Precious Garland of the Supreme Path, Gampopa describes these three kinds of motivation: inferior, middling, and supreme.

     

    Practice 10
    Developing bodhichitta

     

    From beginningless time your mothers have cherished you.

    If they now suffer, what good is your own happiness?

    Therefore, in order to liberate limitless sentient beings,

    Giving rise to bodhichitta is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    The Mahayana speaks of all sentient beings as having once been our mother, our father, and our friend.  Without exception, not a being exists who has not been related to each of us throughout all our lifetimes. The mother is most often used as an example because of her untold acts of kindness. What is the good in attaining liberation for our own sake alone if our mothers continue to weep due to their suffering in samsara?

    Therefore, in certain kinds of meditation, to visualize the mother as the person who has been kindest to us, and then to meditate on all sentient beings as being our mother, is very beneficial. The male or female Bodhisattva responds by developing the enlightened attitude of the Mahayana and working to liberate all sentient beings. According to the Mahayana, one must develop the enlightened attitude, supreme bodhichitta.  Before bodhichitta can arise within our minds, we must have previously meditated on it at length.  The chapters in Gampopa’s Jewel Ornament of Liberation on loving kindness and compassion offer guidance and help.  I advise you to read these chapters again and again, to meditate on them, and to practice them so that you will give rise to the authentic attitude of the Mahayana.

    Practice 11 
    Exchanging happiness for suffering


    All suffering comes from yearning for your own happiness.

    The perfect Buddhas are born from the intention to benefit others.

    Therefore, to truly exchange your own happiness for the suffering of others
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Whether related to our body, possessions, friends, or enemies, all suffering without exception arises because we want happiness for ourselves. The root of desire for personal happiness is ego-clinging.   But where do the perfect Buddhas come from? Buddhas arise from the intention to benefit others. This intention is rooted in compassion, and if one has such compassion, one can become a perfect Buddha. The intention of a Bodhisattva is to benefit others by truly exchanging his or her happiness for the suffering of other beings. The text says, ” to truly exchange,” which means you do not just perform lip-service by mouthing, “I exchange my happiness for your suffering.” Nor should it be merely a thought or an intention. You should actually be able to accomplish this exchange. Then you are a true Bodhisattva.

    How do you develop the ability to do this?  Begin by visualizing according to the instructions on tong len, the practice of giving and taking. First visualize that when you exhale, you give away your happiness in the form of white light for the benefit of all sentient beings, and then when you inhale that you take upon yourself their suffering in the form of black smoke which you perfectly purify when it reaches your heart. This visualization takes some getting used to.  After you have become accustomed to tong len, have continued it for a long time, and have attained the Bodhisattva levels, then you will truly be able to exchange your own happiness for the suffering of others.

    In his text, The Bodhicharyavatara: A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life, Shantideva makes many aspiration prayers on exchanging himself for others. Chapter 3, in particular, contains a number of them. One line says: “May I become a servant for those sentient beings who need a servant”.  

    In an aspiration prayer, you aspire to help others who need help. You give yourself up for the benefit of helping others. Here, Shantideva wishes to become a servant to those who need a servant. He doesn’t pray, “May I become the boss and give orders to others.” In an aspiration prayer, you do not wish for your own welfare. If you do not read Shantideva’s entire text, at least study the third chapter again and again to help you develop the right attitude.

    In general, the Mahayana can be divided into two categories of practice: meditation on emptiness, which is a remedy against confused appearance and habitual tendencies because it cuts the root of samsara; and meditation on bodhichitta because it shows how to behave in everyday life within the relative world of samsara.  Ngulchu Thogme’s thirty-seven practices provide short, clear instructions for both categories of meditation that we can apply just as he teaches.

    These thirty-seven Bodhisattva practices are as important for the Vajrayana as for the Mahayana, because if you carry them out, your Vajrayana practice will become more profound and you will be able to benefit many sentient beings.

    Because Ngulchu Thogme was such a great Bodhisattva, he composed these verses so that ordinary beings could comprehend them. But merely understanding them isn’t enough. You need to be convinced.  Even conviction is insufficient.  The practices must be applied and worked with.  Reading them once and saying, “Oh, how easy! I understand everything,” and then putting them aside will not bring any benefit at all.  You need to read them again and again, memorize them, and strive to put them into practice.

    Practice 12
    Responding to theft

    Even if someone driven by desire steals all your wealth
    Or incites someone else to steal it,
    To dedicate to this person your body, possessions,
    and all your virtue of the three times
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    The application of bodhichitta and the act of dedication enable you to benefit the thief. You also benefit yourself, since these practices accumulate merit and lead you closer to Buddhahood. Loving kindness and compassion are therefore very important.

    If someone steals all your wealth and possessions or instigates someone else to do it, why should you dedicate everything to this person?  The basis for the apparent contradiction is that sometime in a previous lifetime that thief was your parent.  The Mahayana speaks of many lifetimes, throughout which every sentient being at some point has been your parent. In some past life this very thief showed you great kindness.  Understanding this process encourages compassion for the thief-which means not developing  anger.  Compassion enables us to be patient so that we can actually dedicate everything to him or her. Without bodhichitta, we merely become angry.

    There are many stories of how people came to the Dharma as a result of having been harmed by others.  Milarepa is a good example.  When he was very young, his aunt and uncle stole all his family’s wealth and property. Because of this painful experience and others that followed, Milarepa undertook the practice of Dharma and subsequently developed gratitude toward his relatives. Like Milarepa, Mahayana practitioners should consider those who harm them as friends helpful to their Dharma practice.

    It may be easy to comprehend this Bodhisattva practice, but to apply it is quite another matter.  When someone steals everything we own, we become enraged.  It is so difficult not to.  Nevertheless, we cannot practice the Dharma when we are angry. We cannot develop compassion towards the thief. Until we behave in accordance with this verse, we are not following the practice of a Bodhisattva. We really must find out whether we can do so.

     

    Practice 13
    Responding to injury

    If someone cuts off your head
    Even when you have not done the slightest thing wrong,
    Through the power of compassion
    To take his misdeeds upon yourself
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    You have not done anything wrong, but still someone is trying to seriously harm you. Cutting off your head is the ultimate act of violence because it ends your life. How do you generate compassion towards someone trying to kill you?  How do you quell your own rage?  Understand that this person has not analyzed his or her actions with superior knowledge. He or she lacks wisdom, is ignorant, afflicted, and confused.  This dark state of mind inevitably leads to negative actions that create negative karma for the one who wishes to injure you. Then think,  “I see what a pitiable state this person is in, and I wish to arouse compassion towards her.  In a previous life she was my father or mother, yet now she is lost in such ignorance and confusion that she wants to kill me.” A thought process like this can be very effective in nurturing compassion.  Once fully aroused, compassion enables you to take upon yourself the current misdeed of the person who intends to kill you. And on the basis of great compassion, you can take on all misdeeds the person has ever committed.  By practicing tong len, absorbing all the person’s negativity and sending out all your positive qualities, the enemy becomes your Dharma friend, your benefactor who increases the vast store of merit needed to reach Buddhahood.

    The Buddha himself offers many inspiring examples. In his multiple lives as a Bodhisattva, The Awakened One was often killed, but he viewed these deaths as an opportunity to accumulate merit and to develop deep compassion for the person who took his life. Thus, he amassed great merit and in his final incarnation attained enlightenment.

    When someone is trying to physically injure us, the practice is to meditate on patience for oneself and compassion for our enemy. Imagine a child who loves his mother very much. Suddenly, the mother goes crazy and begins to beat him because she is emotionally unbalanced.

    The child’s affection makes it easier for him to respond to the mother’s distress patiently and compassionately, and to help her find a cure. Using this example, we can regard someone trying to harm us as our mother who has gone mad, and our attitude should be helpful. Those compelled to injure, even kill, have no control over their emotions.  Possessed by anger or rage, they lose all self-control and strike out or even commit murder. There was once a book printer called Pharken Togden, which means “the one with high realization.”  In those days, books were printed from letters carved into pieces of wood, so his name became “the book printer of high realization.” He was a very famous siddha with many qualities arisen from meditation. How Pharken Thogden came to practice the Dharma was rather unusual. One day as he sat carving, his mother unexpectedly showed up and disturbed his concentration. Pharken Thogden became so enraged that he lost control and beat her on the head with a block of wood until she died.  Regaining his senses and  seeing the horror of what he had done, he was overwhelmed by grief and shock.

    Pharken Thogden’s remorse was so great that he undertook a long pilgrimage to all the holy places in Tibet, including Mount Kailash, which was as far from his home in Eastern Tibet as he could go. Wherever he traveled, the grieving son carried his mother’s head with him. Lama Pharken Togden endured many hardships on his pilgrimage.  Afterwards, he returned home and dedicated the rest of his life to Dharma practice. In this way he became a highly realized being with many special qualities.

    This example shows that without intending to, anyone can be overpowered by anger, lose control, and commit terrible deeds.  Thus, sentient beings that harm others do not have power over their own senses. Through ignorance, they lose control; through confusion, they cause harm. Remembering this, we develop deep compassion. Have you ever been so furious that anger kept you awake and lack of sleep disturbed your mind and made you unhappy the next day? Perhaps you could not eat, could not concentrate, were irritable and distressed.  All this because of anger. Now imagine that the person wishing to harm you is experiencing the same agitation: seething with hatred, unable to sleep, obsessed by vengeance. On the basis of your own experience, you can empathize and feel compassion for someone whose anger is the root of his suffering. More methods on how to take upon yourself the misdeeds of others are well described in Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye’s Seven Points of Mind Training, called The Great Path to Awakening.

    Practice 14
    Returning praise for slander

     

    Should someone slander you
    Throughout a billion worlds,
    With a heart full of love, to proclaim his good qualities in return
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    Each of us thinks we are very important.  When someone challenges our conceit by circulating unflattering lies about us, we condemn him or her.  In Thogme’s example, a slanderous person is broadcasting these lies throughout a billion worlds. In Tibetan, the term for “billion worlds” is sometimes translated as one tricosm, meaning one thousand to the power of three. Try to imagine a thousand worlds, multiplied by another thousand, which again is multiplied by another thousand. This is a very vast space!  There are countless tricosms, a vast, endless number of worlds. Therefore, the text uses the metaphor of a billion worlds to suggest how far slander can extend.  In our time, through television, radio, email, and other technology, it is possible to circulate a slanderous rumor around the globe. But that is as far as we can go.

    When someone is going about slandering you, what can you do? The first reaction is to retaliate, to tell everyone who will listen how despicable the other fellow is-not exactly a Bodhisattva’s response. But if, instead of striking back, you can lovingly praise this person and proclaim his or her virtues, then you are behaving like a true Bodhisattva.

    Also be aware that it is generally better for one’s Dharma practice to be obscure than to be famous. When we are not well known, pride has less opportunity to take root.  Obscurity helps us develop an aversion to samsara and brings us to the Dharma. On the other hand, fame and prominence can generate so much pride that we eventually behave counter to the Dharma. We commit negative actions that contradict the Buddha’s path or that destroy our own practice. This is important for us to know.

    Though we practice correctly, if we think, “What a good person I am, what fine qualities I possess, what a warm and loving heart I have!”  this is pride. Then, when somebody reveals what a miserable person we really are, our inflated self-esteem pops.  Therefore, our slanderer is actually a friend who helps deflate our pride, the real enemy.  Instead of harboring anger against this person, gratitude is more appropriate.

    Practice 15
    Responding to public humiliation

     

    If in the middle of a crowd of people
    Someone reveals your hidden faults and abuses you for them,
    To see him as a spiritual friend and to bow with respect
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    This verse speaks of an abusive person who publicly reveals all our hidden faults and secrets.  How do we respond like a Bodhisattva?  Once again, the first impulse is to retaliate in kind. However, if we suppress this impulse in order to objectively ponder the actual criticisms, we may realize that they are accurate. We do have such faults.  Observing them diminishes pride. What our abuser has actually done is to instruct us as a guru might.  Whatever points out our actual faults and humbles us is a Dharma teaching. If we have a guru, he or she does not constantly praise us.  That would just increase our pride. To keep us humble, the master may occasionally even abuse or hit us.  Similarly, we can consider our public abuser no less than a spiritual friend, a helpful guru who restrains our pride. On this basis, we bow respectfully to the individual. If we can actually do this, we are behaving like a Bodhisattva.

    In Milarepa’s early life, his aunt and uncle continually insulted him and his family. These insults helped him develop a thorough disgust for and renunciation of samsara that enabled him to generate compassion for the cruel relatives.  Renunciation and compassion became the bedrock of immense inner strength that enabled the Jetsun to meditate throughout his entire life. Another example concerns the translator, Vairochana, and the great practitioner, Namkhai Nyingpo, at a time when the Vajrayana was new to Tibet. When people saw them, they decided the two were dangerous practitioners of black magic, very bad men. This rumor spread and soon Vairochana and Namkhai Nyingpo were forced into exile. Vairochana was banished to the very east of Tibet, where the forest was so dense it was thought no one could survive there. Namkhai Nyingpo was sent to the far south, where the forests were also very thick and water scarce. Both practitioners accepted exile as an opportunity for solitary practice, became accomplished meditators, and attained great realization.  Their story illustrates how it is possible to bring lies against oneself onto the path of Dharma.

     

    Practice 16
    Responding to ingratitude

    If someone whom you dearly cherish like your own child
    Takes you for an enemy,
    Then, like a mother whose child is sick,
    To love that person even more
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    In this example, a mother has a beloved child whom she has nurtured from birth.  The child becomes ill, cries all night, and is cranky. Because she cherishes her child, she does not lose her temper. Instead, she tries to calm and soothe her baby. Keeping this analogy in mind, imagine that someone we have loved and nurtured for many years irrationally turns against us.  The Bodhisatta’s challenge is to increase compassion toward this person. An angry response is of no benefit, and it destroys Bodhisattva activity. If when someone dear to us treats us like an enemy and we can still practice loving kindness and compassion, then we are acting like a Bodhisattva.

    Remember that the person behaving so ungratefully is incapable of seeing our kindness and good intentions because his or her negative state makes it impossible.  The situation is like the process of observing a flower. Light allows us to perceive a flower and appreciate its beauty. Without light, perception cannot take place because the conditions are wrong, the circumstances negative. It is like this when someone we care about imagines we are their adversary.

    Another example is a teacher eager for his students to become skilled and learned.  This teacher imposes a challenging, disciplined schedule. The students must study diligently, behave properly in the classroom, and so on. So the students start to think, “Oh, this teacher is terrible.  How he makes us suffer! We do nothing but study, study, and more study. What a hard time he gives us!”  They do not understand that their work will benefit them in the future.  Anger and resentment darken their minds, and negative circumstances blind them to the qualities of the teacher and his teaching. They perceive the teacher as their adversary, even though he or she has their best interests at heart.  If we apply this example to individuals whose negative thoughts distort their perception of us, we can develop compassion.

    In the lineage of the Shangpa Kagyu, there was once a very kind woman who was not well treated in return.  This woman, later known as Sukhasiddhi, was married and the mother of two sons.  The family was very poor. One day, when she was about sixty years old, her husband and sons went out to search for food.  Only a single bowl of rice remained in the house. While they were away, a starving beggar knocked at her door and asked for food.  So great was her compassion that Sukhasiddhi cooked the rice and gave it to the beggar. Her husband and sons returned that evening exhausted and hungry. They had not found anything to eat and ordered the mother to cook the last of the rice. When she told them she had given it to a beggar, the men became so enraged that they beat her, dragged her by the hair, threw her out of the house, and told her not to come back. Though forced to abandon home and family and to experience many difficulties, Sukhasiddhi eventually encountered an accomplished yogi who taught her Dharma.  She meditated so well that siddhis arose through which she transformed herself into a young woman of sixteen, became renowned as a great yogini, and obtained the rainbow body when she died.  You can read the biography of Sukhasiddhi and study her many profound teachings. Sukhasiddhi’s life, in which the wrath of her husband and sons helped her along the path, exemplifies how the anger of another can benefit one’s Dharma practice.  In brief, for a Bodhisattva with great wisdom and great compassion, all conditions-whether negative or positive-can be brought to the path of Dharma.


    Practice 17
    Responding to spite

     

    Even when someone who is your equal or inferior
    Driven by spite seeks to defame you,
    To place him on the crown of your head
    With the same respect you would accord your guru
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Being despised is a wonderful remedy for pride. Praise has the opposite effect: Instead of deflating pride, praise inflates it.  Of the two, then, which benefits your Dharma practice more? And why is it that praise causes pride, and blame causes frustration? Why do we enjoy praise and reject blame? When we analyze that question with our intelligence, we discover that both pride and frustration are concepts dependent on thoughts.  Once we understand this conceptual process, it is easy to understand emptiness.

    You may start out as a good Dharma practitioner, then everyone begins to praise you.  The result? Your pride grows.  You do not notice it happening, so you  do not apply a remedy. And then?  You begin to act against the Dharma and to harm others. But when people blame you and are spiteful, then naturally your pride is squashed. Therefore, blame is much more useful than praise, and we should respect those who despise us no less than we revere our guru.

     

    Even an excellent student endowed with a good heart and good fortune can succumb to wrong views. For example, the Dakinis foretold that the pride of one of Milarepa’s main disciples, Rechungpa, would be an obstacle in his spiritual development.  Having gone to India twice, Rechungpa began to think, “What a very educated man I’ve become, and a very fine scholar, too.” He became puffed up with pride, even imagining he was Milarepa’s equal.  Milarepa, eventually tamed Rechungpa’s pride by manifesting miracles through which the disciple realized what an accomplished yogi his guru was. You can read about Rechungpa in the biography of Milarepa.  Also, The Thousand Songs of Milarepa contains many stories about Rechungpa and how he developed wrong views.  One of the main ones is the story of the yak horn.

    Practice 18
    Abandoning discouragement


    Though gripped by poverty and always scorned,

    Though stricken by disease and tormented by evil spirits,

    To take upon yourself the negativity and suffering of every being

    And never to get discouraged

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    You have no money or food.  Adding to your misery, you live under poor conditions that invite scorn. Then you fall ill.  In the days of Thogme, you might have succumbed to leprosy, the most incurable illness in Tibet at that time. (Today, the disease is cancer.) On top of everything, your mind bedevils and torments you.

    Difficulties such as these arise in our lives and create intense suffering. Yet this text tells us that even then we must not lose heart.  Not only must we endure our own suffering, we must take upon ourselves the negativity and suffering of every other being by practicing tong len. This is the real practice of a Bodhisattva. If we are serious about the Dharma, then suffering is preferable to happiness. Happiness is  a negative influence coaxing us not to practice, while suffering is a friend always beckoning us to practice and study.

    The nun Phagmo Gelongma Palmo lost her limbs to leprosy. This suffering motivated her to intensively practice the Thousand Armed Chenrezig. Her practice eventually cured her leprosy.  In the end, she reached the Bodhisattva bhumis.

    In Tibet there were no hospitals to treat eye diseases. Many who went blind devoted their life to Dharma practice, to reciting the Mani mantra. There are many stories of people regaining their sight from having practiced intensely. Disease was a helper that pushed them onto the path of Dharma.

    When people in Tibet got old, they stayed at home and recited the Mani mantra all day long.  Their recitation was actually very beneficial, for through it they forgot all their suffering. Also, their children didn’t think, “Oh, these old people just sit around doing nothing.”  They appreciated their parents’ Dharma practice.  Though the adult children had to work, their elders could spend their time reciting OM MANI PADME HUM, inspiring the entire family and creating a positive atmosphere in the house.

    By teaching us how to transform all situations of suffering, we develop mental courage. The Kagyu lineage provides examples of many whose great suffering or unfavorable circumstances turned their minds to the Dharma: Gampopa, one of the founders of the Kagyupas, renounced samsara, turned to the Dharma, and became a great siddha-all because of deep sorrow in his life.  He had been married and had a son and a daughter. First his son died, then his daughter, and then his wife. Because he lost his entire family, Gampopa developed such unshakeable renunciation for samsara that he vowed to devote the rest of his life to the Dharma.  He subsequently became Milarepa’s closest and best disciple and was able to benefit countless sentient beings. Called Dhagpo Rinpoche after the name of his homeland, Gampopa founded the Dhagpo Kagyu lineage, one of the four greater and eight lesser vehicles of the Kagyu tradition.

    On the other hand, there have always been those who have practiced the Dharma even without having experienced unhappiness and unfavorable circumstances. This is a sign that they have already been practitioners in previous lives and do not need negative situations to nudge them onto the path now. They manifest a natural inclination to renounce samsara.  As I mentioned earlier, Ngulchu Thogme was already a great practitioner at an early age. The yoginis, Machik Labdron and Yeshe Tsogyal, were also very advanced from youth. Even as children, these three were compassionate, committed Dharma practitioners. They did not require bad circumstances to motivate them,  a sign that they were already great practitioners in their former lifetimes.

     

    Practice 19
    Counteracting arrogance


    Though famous and prominent, someone to whom others bow,

    Though you amass the riches of the god of wealth,

    To see that worldly splendor has no essence

    And thus to be without arrogance

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    Today, newspapers, radio, and television, can instantly make a person become world famous.  In earlier times, fame was confined to a person’s immediate vicinity.  But whether on a broad or narrow scale, fame is impermanent: it changes, it vanishes. Therefore Thogme says fame has no essence.  Wealth also has no essence. The text speaks here about Vaishravana, the god of wealth, who is purported to be very rich and who protects the riches of others.  But even wealth like Vaishravana’s lacks essence. Especially these days, people are judged by how much they possess. Yet the rich are not happy.  Wealth is impermanent, subject to change,  and without essence.  Still, the wealthy strive to maintain and perpetuate their fortune. Thus, they suffer. While the rich suffer from fear of poverty, the famous suffer from fear of becoming has-beens. Both experience suffering while they still are wealthy and famous because they do not recognize that wealth and fame are groundless, impermanent and empty of true essence.  The Seven Points of Mind Training devotes an entire chapter to impermanence.

    I will not say much about it here because it is a directly observable phenomenon. Simply watch the news on television to see how quickly fame and notoriety fade, how the rich lose their wealth and the poor become rich. All around us impermanence has become more noticeable than ever. Machines and technology make everything move faster and faster. The results are not always beneficial. For example, at one time not a single person died in the sky. Today, when an airplane catches fire and explodes in flight, hundreds of people are instantly killed.  This is a sign of accelerated impermanence. Even though you may easily recognize the phenomenon of impermanence, you must still reflect on how it applies to your own life.

    Practice 20
    Taming the mind


    If you have not tamed the enemy of your own anger,

    Combating outer opponents will only make them multiply.

    Therefore, with an army of loving kindness and compassion,

    To tame your own mind is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Generally we think we must defeat outer opponents. If only we could get rid of them, we would be happy.  Or so we believe. But we cannot overcome all adversaries, and when we try, their numbers just increase. At first we have one, then two, then many.  So what are we to do? The only solution is to tame our anger, tame our mindstream through bodhichitta.  Armed with the attitude of loving kindness and compassion, we naturally no longer have any external enemies.  Because the Great Teacher, the Buddha, the Bhagawan, had tamed his mindstream, he prevailed against the Maras who tried to distract him as he sat meditating beneath the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya. The Buddha was armed with the forces of the samadhi of loving kindness, and the Maras could not harm him. The Great Yogi Milarepa tamed the enemy of ego-clinging with the force of the wisdom that realizes selflessness. And he conquered the enemy of anger with the army of bodhichitta. Because he defeated his inner foes of ego-clinging and anger, he became so skillful that even his bitterest enemies eventually became his disciples.

     

    Practice 21
    Relinquishing attachment to sense pleasures

     

    Sense pleasures are like salt water.
    The more you partake of them,
    The more your craving will increase.
    Therefore, when something arouses attachment,
    To abandon it immediately is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    In Tibetan, the term for the sense pleasures is a special one that refers to beautiful forms, lovely sounds, appealing smells delicious tastes, and objects pleasant to the touch. These are the five sense pleasures. If you take them to be true, your attachment to them-and your suffering-will increase.  Like drinking salt water to quench your thirst, the more you drink, the thirstier you become.  In the same way, it is necessary to abandon immediately whatever arouses attachment. This is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    There are two ways of relinquishing sense objects: one is literally to give them up; the other is to abandon attachment to them.  Milarepa actually gave up all sense pleasures to meditate in solitude.  He didn’t need or want them. Marpa, on the other hand, abandoned only his attachment to the five sense pleasures. He lived a normal householder’s life, enjoying all the pleasures of the senses. Though he indulged in everything, Marpa was attached to nothing, for he realized all sense pleasures to be a dream and an illusion. He was thus able to completely relinquish attachment to them.  In fact, Marpa took sense pleasures onto the path, using them as a practice.  Then there was Gampopa, a monk. Gampopa decided to adopt a half-and-half approach. He gave up half of the sense objects; the other half he understood to be without any essence, no more than a dream and an illusion.

    Practice 22
    Transcending dualistic appearances


    All appearances are your own mind, and

    Mind itself primordially transcends all mental fabrications.

    Knowing this is the precise nature of reality,

    To remain free from dualistic conceptions

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    The first line, “All appearances are your own mind,” accords with the Mind Only School, known as the Chittamatrin. The second line that says, “Mind itself primordially transcends all mental fabrication”, accords with the second Rangtong Madhyamaka School, namely the Prasangika. Some of you may have studied the view and meditation of these philosophical schools.  If not, now is not the time or place for an in-depth examination. Briefly,  “dualistic appearances” refers to perceived and perceiver. The perceived is the outer perceived object, and the perceiver is the inner perceiving mind. The outer perceived object is merely one’s mind, a confused or delusive appearance arising from habitual  tendencies. It is just like a dream in which objects seem to arise, yet nothing that appears has any true existence.

    If the outer perceived object is just like a dream appearance, then what can we say about the inner perceiving mind?  The text says that the mind itself, that is, the true nature of mind, transcends all mental fabrications and has done so since beginningless time. You need to know this. If you realize that perceived objects do not really exist and that the true nature of mind transcends all mental fabrications, you can give up clinging to dualistic appearances.  Only then will you be able to accomplish this Bodhisattva practice.

    Practice 23
    Seeing pleasant objects as rainbows


    When you encounter objects that please your mind,

    Know they are like rainbows in the summer season.  

    Though they seem beautiful,

    To see they are not real and to give up attachment to them

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    This verse uses the rainbow as an example of form to illustrate that no matter how beautiful an appearance may seem, attachment to it must be relinquished.  Beyond what the eye can see, “objects that please your mind” include the four other objects of the senses: pleasant sounds for the ear, appealing smells for the nose, delicious tastes for the tongue, and soft, gentle objects for the skin.  Clinging to these as real must be abandoned as well. All sense objects are like rainbows that, though beautiful and desirable, are mere appearances that lack essence. If we believe otherwise, our desire to cling to a desirable object will increase, and our suffering will grow in equal measure.  Once the object is understood to be empty of essence, it can be enjoyed without attachment, without suffering. What is there to give up?

    In this way all forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile objects have no self-nature.  They are absolutely empty of essence.  Though from the absolute perspective they do not truly exist, still they appear as mere appearances.  This apparent contradiction is called appearance and emptiness inseparable. Why do not we see this universal quality of the inseparability of appearance and emptiness of phenomena? It is because our minds are obscured by the idea that phenomena exist, and this thought covers up their true nature.  Our minds are veiled by concepts.

     

    All appearances are like a dream. When we dream, objects clearly appear to us, but when we analyze these dream appearances, we see they do not exist apart from our mind. Nevertheless, they manifest as appearance and emptiness inseparable. While we sleep, we accept the reality of our dreams because we fail to recognize we are dreaming.  Upon awakening, we understand our dreams were only mental events, mere dream appearances. Our idea or concept about them as solid and real was mistaken. All of life’s appearances are like that: appearance and emptiness inseparable.

    Our tasks are to dismantle the idea that appearances truly exist and to become free from conceptual obscurations that veil how things really are.  In this way, the empty nature of appearance will manifest and our life will become relaxed, open, and spacious. Then, no matter what desirable objects appear to us in waking life, our enjoyment of them can be free of pain, affliction, and all disturbing emotions. Once we are able to do this, we have fulfilled the twenty-third practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Practice 24
    Seeing unpleasant circumstances as delusions


    All suffering is like the death of your child in a dream.

    To take such delusive appearances as true, how exhausting!

    Therefore, whenever you encounter unpleasant circumstances,

    To see them as delusions is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Every variety of suffering is similar to experiencing your child die in a dream. We have so many kinds of suffering.  Our body, possessions, enemies, friends, relatives, and so on can all cause sorrow.  But not one of these sources of pain truly exists.  All are delusive appearances,  nothing but dreams. We dream we have given birth to a child who is the center of our life.  The child dies; we cannot be consoled.  The truth of the matter is that there is no reason to mourn because no one has died. We have experienced a dream death.  Our grief is dream-grief arising from delusive dream appearances.

    All suffering is delusive, like the suffering in a dream. All appearances are delusive and confused, like the appearances in a dream. Life will exhaust you if you do not recognize this. So, do not take delusive appearances to be true. Recognize whatever difficulties and obstacles you meet as delusion.

    However, it is not enough to glibly think, “Oh, it’s only an illusion.” Conviction is needed that this is actually the case.  To develop conviction, first correctly analyze why the situation and all its appearances are delusive. This means applying your own experience to the Buddha’s teaching that appearances do not truly exist.  Do this again and again.  Eventually you will develop a firm conviction that waking experience is no different from the dream state.  Then, when difficult circumstances arise, you will know they are delusions and you will be able to apply the real practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    [Practices 25 through 30 address the six perfections, or 6 paramitas.]

    Practice 25: The First Paramita
    Giving generously

    If those who aspire to enlightenment willingly give up their bodies,

    What need is there to mention external objects?

    Therefore with no hope of reward or benefit,

    To give with generosity is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    Why is the practice of generosity necessary? Someone who wishes to attain enlightenment must be ready, like the Buddha himself, to make the ultimate offer of his body. In several of his lives as a Bodhisattva, the Teacher gave his own body.  Many other Bodhisattvas have done the same.

    In order to attain enlightenment, if you need to be ready to surrender your own body, then offering merely your possessions is hardly worth mentioning. Therefore, with no hope of reward or karmic benefit, you must give generously to practice like a Bodhisattva.


    Practice 26: The Second Paramita
    Guarding discipline

     

    If lack of discipline prevents you from benefiting yourself,

    Then your wish to benefit others is just a joke.

    Therefore, to guard discipline

    With no longing for worldly existence

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    In general, discipline is of three types: First is the discipline to abandon all faults of body, speech, and mind.  Second is the discipline to accumulate virtue.  Third is the discipline to work for the benefit of sentient beings.

    As applied to the three vehicles, giving up harming others is the discipline of the Sravakayana,, benefiting others is the discipline of the Mahayana, and developing the ability to see all appearances as pure is the discipline of the Vajrayana.  If, without discipline you cannot benefit even yourself by accomplishing the one-sided peace of nirvana, how will you be able to accomplish Buddhahood for the benefit of all other beings?  Discipline with no longing for worldly existence means foregoing all efforts to secure a favorable rebirth, for example as a god or a human, in which case you are still attached to samsara.  The Bodhisattva practices discipline without any attachment to worldly existence.

    Practice 27: The Third Paramita
    Practicing patience


    For a Bodhisattva who seeks a wealth of virtue

    Every harm is like a precious treasure.

    Therefore, without getting irritated by anything at all,

    To cultivate patience is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    What is patience? The genuine definition of patience is the mental ability to remain unperturbed by negative conditions. Applied to the Dharma, it means forbearance in the face of difficulty. Practitioners should be able to withstand whatever obstacles arise when they practice the Dharma.  For example, extremes of heat or cold should not influence the commitment to practice. The paramita of patience goes further:  It includes the patience to forbear emptiness. The profound nature of phenomena is emptiness.  Hearing about this emptiness, some people become fearful. They think, “If everything is empty, then what can I do?  I am so afraid!” Thus, patience also extends to one’s ability to tolerate the idea of emptiness, the true nature of being.

    The Mahayanasutralankara describes patience as having four qualities. The first is that it pacifies anger.  Anger and patience are direct opposites. If you are angry, you are not being patient. And if you are not being patient, you are not behaving like a Bodhisattva. The second quality of patience is that it is endowed with nonconceptual primordial wisdom.  Bodhisattvas who completely understand this point realize the selflessness of phenomena and of the individual.

    The third quality of patience is that one comes to like all sentient beings. This is not a matter of saying, “Oh, I like everybody!” A Bodhisattva who has complete patience with everything hurtful or harmful bears affection towards everyone and can bring happiness everywhere. This ability to bestow happiness on all sentient beings is a sign that the paramita of patience has been perfected.

    The fourth quality is that through perfecting patience, one can help others progressively develop their Dharma practice. This ability is called “ripening others through the Three Vehicles”.  Starting with the Shravakayana and proceeding through the Mahayana and the Vajrayana, a Bodhisattva guides beings along the path, helping them decrease their afflictions and suffering, and increase their compassion and wisdom.

    Milarepa had good reason to be angry with the aunt who had stolen everything from him. But as a Dharma practitioner, he applied patience.  In fact, he developed complete patience. After many years, Milarepa returned home, where he discovered the bones of his mother and learned that his sister had disappeared.  The family house, though damaged, still stood and had value. And one of his fields, though overgrown, was fertile and also had value. Patience enabled Milarepa to give his aunt the house and the field, thereby pleasing her, which is the third quality of patience.  By giving away all that he possessed to his worst enemy, Milarepa made her so happy that she became interested in Dharma.

    Thus, the fourth quality of patience arose:  Milarepa did not say, “I’m justified in being angry toward you to, so I will not teach you Dharma. You’re a bad woman, my enemy.”  Instead, he gave his aunt Dharma instructions.  Her meditation practice took root and developed, and in the end the aunt became a great yogini.  So the fourth quality of patience is ability to ripen others on the path.

     

    Another incident in Milarepa’s life concerned a hunter who, one day while out hunting, came upon a deer and set his fierce dog on it. The dog chased after the terrified deer, which fled until it came upon Milarepa meditating.  To quell its fear, Milarepa sang to it, and the deer lay down peacefully by the Jetsun’s side. Suddenly, in charged the dog. Frustrated and enraged at losing its prey, it attacked Milarepa. Again, the Jetsun sang a song.  The dog was pacified and settled down by the yogi’s other side. Finally the hunter burst onto the scene.  Seeing Milarepa flanked by the deer at ease at one side and the dog equally at ease on the other, he bellowed, “You have used black magic to pacify these animals!” and readied his bow and arrow to shoot Milarepa.  He took aim and was about to let the arrow fly when Milarepa called, “Stop!  There will be enough time to shoot me with your arrow.  First listen to my song.” And so he sang a song to the hunter that pleased the man so much he decided to spare Milarepa’s life. Later he developed great faith in the Dharma and became Milarepa’s disciple.

    This story illustrates the four qualities of Milarepa’s patience:  Pacifying the anger of the dog and the hunter is the first.  Demonstrating nonconceptual wisdom is the second. Pleasing and melting the hunter’s anger through his song is the third. And inspiring the hunter’s faith in the Dharma so that he could receive the profound instructions of Mahamudra and the Six Yogas of  Naropa is the fourth. Thus, Milarepa’s perfect patience and compassionate mind transformed his potential murderer into a Dharma practitioner and disciple. What an inspiring story from the life of Milarepa!

    In the Sutralankara, Maitreya describes the four qualities of patience:

    Patience decreases all opposite sides.
    One possesses nonconceptual primordial wisdom.
    One can perfectly fulfill all wishes.
    And one ripens sentient beings along the three vehicles.

    Notice that the first two qualities concern ourselves, and the second two concern others-even our enemies, whom we bring to the Dharma and whose practice we help mature.

    As a Mahayana practitioner, always remember that anyone who hurts you shows you a great kindness, and that whatever brings you harm bestows a precious treasure. It is like a poor person digging in the earth who finds oil, gold, or silver and suddenly becomes very rich. From the Mahayana perspective, whoever or whatever harms us provides the same opportunity for wealth.  Why? To obtain a wealth of virtue requires a harmful opponent.  Without a foe or adversary, how can we practice patience?  The Bodhisattva wishes to develop virtue, merit, and such.  The prerequisite for these qualities, our most precious treasure, is an enemy.

    Practice 28: The Fourth Paramita
    Cultivating joyous effort


    If Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, who strive for their benefit alone,

    Expend effort as if to extinguish a fire burning on their heads,

    Then for the benefit of all beings,

    To cultivate joyous effort, the wellspring of positive qualities,

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    The Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas practice for their own liberation; that is, they do not take the Bodhisattva vow or develop the enlightened attitude. Yet they apply as much effort to their practice as if they were putting out a fire on their heads. If your head were in flames, can you imagine how fast you would drop everything to extinguish it? The point here is to show how diligent the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are, how much effort they apply to their practice just fo r their own benefit.

    We who have developed the enlightened attitude of the Mahayana should apply even greater effort. We should apply joyous effort, which is the source of positive qualities that benefit of all sentient beings.  That is the practice of a Bodhisattva. Joyous effort possesses the same four qualities as patience.  To apply this paramita to Maitreya’s verse, we need change only one phrase.

    Joyous effort decreases all opposite sides.
    One possesses nonconceptual primordial wisdom.
    One can perfectly fulfill all wishes.

    And one ripens sentient beings along the three vehicles.

    Joyous effort overcomes its opposite, laziness, and allows us to engage enthusiastically in Dharma. By applying  nonconceptual primordial wisdom as we carry out this practice, we transcend concepts of a diligent subject, an object of diligence, and the act of diligence. As a model of joyous effort, Milarepa pleased many beings.  Seeing his diligence, they developed trust in him and in the Dharma, which fulfilled the third quality of joyous effort. Having won their trust, Milarepa then gave them Dharma practices and helped bring them to maturity. Even today, Milarepa’s example inspires us.  We read his biography, admire his diligence, and his example ripens us upon the path.  This is an example of the fourth quality of joyous effort.

    Practice 29:  The Fifth Paramita
    Attaining meditative stability

    Vipashyana perfectly endowed with shamatha

    Completely conquers all afflictions.

    To cultivate meditative stability That transcends the four formless states
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    Among the three realms (desire, form, and formless), the highest is the formless, which is reached through samadhi, or meditative stability.  Samadhi has four levels, namely, Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, Complete Nothingness, and Peak of Existence.  The highest, most subtle of these is Peak of Existence. Within all existence, all samsara, no state is higher.  But no matter how subtle Peak of Existence may be, it still lies within the three realms. To conquer afflictions and transcend suffering, our meditation must go beyond all existence.

    Transcendence of samsara requires superior knowledge, the wisdom that realizes the selflessness of all phenomena.  How does superior knowledge manifest? When vipashyana (analytic or insight meditation) arises from shamatha (peaceful abiding meditation), the two become one.  This union, known as samten, or stable meditation, activates superior knowledge within our samadhi. This fifth paramita, samten, is the key to unlocking the wisdom that realizes emptiness.  Through samten, one completely conquers affliction and suffering, goes beyond the four states of samadhi, and transcends all existence.  One is liberated from samsara.  Therefore, stable meditation is the practice of a Bodhisattva.  Stable meditation also has Maitreya’s four qualities:

    Stable meditation decreases its opposite.
    It is embraced by nonconceptual primordial wisdom.
    One can perfectly fulfill all beings’ wishes.
    And one ripens sentient beings along the three vehicles.

    How does meditative stability decrease its opposites? Agitation and dullness, the opposites of samten , are faults that in equal measure hinder meditation. The greater the meditative stability, the less these faults will operate. With regard to meditation, the quality of nonconceptual primordial wisdom refers to not taking the meditator, the object of meditation, and the act of meditating to be truly existent. They are not conceptualized. >From meditative stability arises the third quality, that of fulfilling all wishes. The meditator now develops special qualities and all-seeing knowledge through which he or she can accomplish miracles that please others and make them happy. These miracles inspire others to trust in the Dharma, arouse their interest in practice, and give a Bodhisattva the opportunity to ripen them on the three vehicles-ripening being the fourth quality.

    Milarepa  perfected meditative stability. He could fulfill all wishes and ripen sentient beings along the three vehicles.  At one point in his life, three high scholars from a university who had disdain for Milarepa and thought he lacked any accomplishment challenged the yogi to a debate. Through having accomplished the fifth paramita, meditative stability, Milarepa could work miracles. He demonstrated this ability, astounding the scholars so much that they realized Milarepa’s qualities and became very happy and joyous.  Through Milarepa, they learned what the genuine Dharma was, developed trust in him, and later became disciples whom Milarepa ripened on the path.  In the end, they became some of Mila’s best disciples. Thus, by demonstrating miracles, he fulfilled the third quality of pleasing sentient beings and making them happy; and the fourth quality by ripening them on the path.

    Here is my song about the three scholars:

    Milarepa pleased with knowledge and miracles Even the scholars who wanted to defeat him in debate. Then he ripened them with genuine Mahamudra and the Six Yogas. Thus they became principal disciples.  How very wonderful!

    Practice 30:  The Sixth Paramita
    Cultivating nonconceptual superior knowledge


    Without superior knowledge,

    It is not possible to attain perfect enlightenment through

    the first five paramitas alone.

    Therefore, joining it with skillful means

    and not conceptualizing about the three spheres

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva

     

    Generally, when one thinks of knowledge, what comes to mind is worldly knowledge, the sort that enables us to manufacture cars, make computers, or cure sickness. Here the text speaks of a different kind of knowledge, superior knowledge that transcends the world. Superior knowledge recognizes the selflessness of the individual and of phenomena, and it is united with skillful means-loving kindness and compassion. For knowledge to be superior, it must transcend conceptualizing the three spheres–that is, of there being someone performing an action, an action itself, and an object of the action. If we have perfected the first five paramitas, but lack nonconceptual wisdom united with bodhichitta, it will be impossible to attain enlightenment.  Applying this sixth paramita to Maitreya’s four qualities:


    Superior knowledge decreases all opposite sides.

    One possesses nonconceptual primordial wisdom.

    One can perfectly fulfill all wishes,

    And one ripens sentient beings along the three vehicles

    The first quality is that superior knowledge decreases false or mistaken views, such as denying absolute and relative levels of reality, disputing previous and future lives, or trying to disprove karma, cause, and result. These are examples of mistaken views or wrong knowledge. Another type of wrong view is using scientific knowledge to harm beings.

    If we perfect superior knowledge, we realize the true nature of mind itself.   Milarepa said, “There is no other superior knowledge than to realize the true nature.” In other words, if you realize the true nature, then you have realized the paramita of superior knowledge.

    Practice 31
    Analyzing delusion

    If you have not analyzed your own confusion,
    You might put on a Dharmic façade
    While behaving in a non-Dharmic way.
    Therefore, to continuously analyze your delusion and discard it
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    If you wish to practice correctly, it is necessary to analyze your confusion, your delusions. Otherwise, your practice becomes no more than a façade, a mask behind which you behave counter to the Teachings.

    Here is an episode in Milarepa’s life that is pertinent: Yet another university geshe (this one named Dalo) tried to discredit Milarepa by challenging him to a public debate. When Dalo failed to defeat the Jetsun, the scholar became so enraged that he took a handful of dirt and flung it in Milarepa’s face. Seeing this affront, his disciple Rechungpa lost his temper. “The Dharma must be properly maintained.  Such behavior isn’t Dharmic.  I must defend teacher, my guru,”  Rechungpa  rashly concluded. He picked up a stick and was about to thrash Dalo when Milarepa called out, “Wait a minute!  Calm down and meditate on patience!” And then he sang this song:

    Rechungpa, please practice patience. Otherwise you will violate the Dharma

    When he heard his guru’s song, Rechungpa realized he was acting from anger and violating his Bodhisattva vow. You can see that both the scholar and the disciple had deluded themselves into thinking they were practicing Dharma when, in fact, they were violating its teachings.  The scholar was a monk, yet he became angry and threw dirt at Milarepa.  Rechungpa was a practicing yogi, yet anger had him ready to beat the scholar with a stick.  Both men presented the faces of Dharma practitioners when, through self-delusion, they were violating its precepts.

    This story shows how important it is to continuously analyze your body, speech, and mind for signs of confusion.  And having analyzed your delusion, you must give it up.  This is the true practice of a Bodhisattva.  In their delusion, Dalo and Rechungpa failed to analyze their behavior or see that they were at fault. Perhaps most practitioners who act against the Dharma as a result of anger do so because they cannot recognize or analyze their behavior.  Under the sway of delusion, they violate the Teachings.

    When the debate between Dalo and Rechungpa took place, all the inhabitants of the valley, along with the sponsors who had been invited for a great feast and puja, witnessed the scene. They witnessed Dalo become enraged,  Rechungpa lose his temper, and Milarepa remain peaceful, even smiling, when Dalo threw dirt in his face. So their faith and trust in Milarepa grew, and their respect for Dalo and Rechungpa declined.

    Gampopa was Milarepa’s sun disciple and Rechungpa, as foretold by the yidam Dorje Phago (Vajrayogini), was his moon disciple. . Yet even such a close disciple as Rechungpa could not control his anger. In the same way, when we get angry we should be very careful. Anger will of course arise, but when it does we have to be very careful about how we view and handle it.

    Another story about the consequences of anger concerns a main disciple of Patrul Rinpoche, Nyoksho Longtok. One day, Nyoksho Longtok and Patrul Rinpoche set out on a journey. They had not proceeded very far when thieves attacked them and seized everything they had brought with them.  Being a person of great physical strength, Nyoksho Longtok began to assault the men with his walking stick.  Patrul Rinpoche cried, “Stop! Stop! Meditate on patience, meditate on patience!” In his anger, the disciple turned a deaf ear to his guru’s entreaties.

    Again Patrul Rinpoche called out, “Be patient, meditate on patience!” But Nyoksho Longtok continued to flail the robbers as hard as he could. So overpowered was he by rage that he had thoroughly beaten and routed the thieves before even noticing that Patrul Rinpoche had gone away and left him behind.

    When he came to his senses, he began searching for his master.  After a long time, the disciple found Patrul Rinpoche, who refused to see him.  When Nyoksho Longtok asked why, Rinpoche replied, “I told you to meditate on patience, but you didn’t listen, you were too angry.” And for many months afterwards, Nyoksho Longtok was not allowed to see Patrul Rinpoche because in the grip of delusion he had not attended to the words of his teacher. He had not been able to analyze his delusion and see through it.  The same can happen to any of us if we are not careful and do not analyze our anger when it arises.

    When the robbers stole Patrul Rinpoche’s and Nyoksyho Longtok’s possessions, Rinpoche intended that he and his student mentally dedicate all their goods to the thieves and pray that the stolen items might benefit them and all sentient beings. The incident would then have been an opportunity to practice the paramitas of generosity and patience.  Blinded by delusion, Nyoksho Longtok could not listen to his teacher and therefore lost this opportunity.

    One Mahayana prayer for the perfection of patience says, ” I pray that in this and all my lifetimes I will be able to make no mistakes arising from anger, but instead be patient.”

     

    Practice 32
    Not criticizing other Bodhisattvas


    If, compelled by your own afflictions,

    You speak of the faults of other Bodhisattvas,

    You, yourself, will degenerate.

    Therefore, never to mention the faults of those

    Who have entered the Mahayana path

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    One stanza in The Seven Points of Mind Training directs the reader to think that all positive qualities belong to other sentient beings and that all faults are one’s own.  This is the correct attitude.  Generally, most people think just the opposite: someone else is always wrong, while they are always right. This attitude is to be given up.  Patrul Rinpoche advises students to acknowledge their own deficiency first; and then, when they recognize it in someone else, to pray that the guru grants blessings to them both.  It is always beneficial to see that the perceived fault in yourself is greater than it is in the other. Then you know that person is no different from you.

    Practice 33
    Relinquishing attachment to households

     

    Desire for gain and honor leads to argument,

    And activities of listening, reflecting and meditating decline.

    Therefore, to relinquish attachment to the households

    of  friends, relatives, and sponsors

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    Under the influence of desire for gain and recognition, even a Bodhisattva may end up arguing over possessions and demanding special considerations. Preoccupied with such desires, the ordinary Bodhisattva’s activities of listening, analyzing, and meditating will decrease. These are good reasons for giving up attachment to the households of relatives, friends, and sponsors.

     

    Practice 34
    Abandoning harsh speech

    Harsh speech disturbs the minds of others
    And compromises a Bodhisattva’s right conduct.
    Therefore, to give up harsh and unpleasant speech
    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

    We are advised for two reasons to give up harsh words that displease others. First, our conduct disturbs the minds of others. You may recall situations when someone spoke to you sharply or unkindly, or unfairly laid blame on you.  You became disturbed, frustrated, depressed.  Perhaps the harshness even made you cry.  This is why it is wise to remember that harsh or unpleasant speech causes others pain. The second reason to give up harsh speech is because it compromises a Bodhisattva’s right conduct, which is to benefit others. Disturbing someone’s mind accomplishes just the opposite: it causes harm. Therefore, harsh and unpleasant speech violates the Bodhisattva vow.

     

    Practice 35
    Eliminating mental afflictions


    Once you become accustomed to the mental afflictions,

    They are hard to cure with antidotes.

    Therefore, with the remedies of mindfulness and awareness

    To eliminate afflictions the moment they arise

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    As long as we take things to be true, then mental afflictions like attachment, anger, and jealousy will continue to arise. As soon as they do, a Bodhisattva must eradicate them. Why is it so difficult to fight mental afflictions with antidotes?  It is because of habit.  We have reacted a certain way for so long and have become so accustomed to our mental afflictions that we do not notice when they arise. Even if we know what antidote to apply, we may not be sufficiently mindful and aware to apply it. But a mindful and fully aware person holds an armful of remedies. “Mindfulness” is remembering at all times what conduct to abandon and what conduct to adopt. “Fully aware” means being constantly alert to afflictions the moment they arise in our mind.  Mindfulness and awareness are the weapons that cut afflictions and work as antidotes to habit.

    For example, you are mindful that patience must be adopted and anger abandoned. Then, if you are alert and notice that anger is arising in your mind, you can remedy it immediately by applying the antidote of patience. An analogy is the Tibetan verb “to even out”. This term is often used in road construction:  If you are building a road and notice rocks jutting up, you take a jackhammer and break them up to make the road smooth and even. In the same way, you have to “even out” each mental affliction as it arises.


    Practice 36
    Remaining mindful and aware


    In brief, wherever you are and whatever you do,

    Always examine the state of your mind.

    Cultivating mindfulness and awareness continuously

    To benefit others is the practice of a Bodhisattva.

     

    Whether you are in a remote monastery or in a city, whether you are a monastic or a householder, you must be continuously mindful and aware of the state of your mind. This means knowing your real intention at all times, finding out why you are doing something and for whose benefit. Always investigate your true motivation.

    To cultivate continuous mindfulness and awareness means to accomplish the benefit of others as well as yourself. Even if you are helping others, still check your motivation: it is possible to work for others’ benefit for the wrong reasons. Therefore, this verse summarizes all thirty-five practices that have preceded it.

    Practice Thirty-seven
    Dedicating merit


    To clear away the suffering of all infinite beings,

    With superior knowledge free of concepts of the three spheres,

    To dedicate to enlightenment the merit accumulated through these efforts

    Is the practice of a Bodhisattva

    How does a Bodhisattva dedicate merit?  The Bodhisattva applies the superior knowledge of emptiness to the three spheres.  This means that he or she purifies the dedication process by realizing that there is no one to dedicate merit, no merit to be dedicated, and no one to receive the merit.  Subject, action, object do not truly exist. This is the meaning of “Šfree of concepts of the three spheres”, and it cannot be separated from the superior knowledge with which it is suffused:  the wisdom that realizes emptiness. Without understanding that the three spheres do not truly exist, it is  quite difficult to comprehend how to dedicate merit in this way.  Imagine a dream in which you are sitting before a shrine.  In the exact moment of dedication, you awaken and instantly realize that no one has been dedicating merit, no merit has been dedicated, and no one has received any merit.  It was all a dream. This is how to understand the practice of dedicating merit

    Epilogue A
    Relying on scripture and oral teachings


    Relying on what is taught in the sutras, tantras, treatises,

    And the words of the genuine masters,

    I have composed these thirty-seven Bodhisattva practices

    To benefit those who wish to train on the Bodhisattva’s path.

     

    In this verse, Ngulchu Thogme explains what he has composed and why he has composed it. He refers to his reliance on the teachings of the sutras, tantras, treatises, and on the instructions of genuine masters.  It is a traditional requirement to mention these precedents so that everyone understands Thogme did not personally make up the practices. He has based them on the teachings of the great masters who have preceded him.

    His purpose in composing these verses has been to summarize the vast number of Bodhisattva practices into a manageable thirty-seven to benefit those who have entered the Mahayana path and wish to train in it.  Thus, Thogme has made the practices easy for everyone to apply.

    Epilogue B
    Confidence in basis of the practices

    Because my intelligence is small and my studies few,
    I cannot compose poetry to please the scholars.
    Yet since they are based on sutras and teachings
    of the genuine masters, I believe these practices of a Bodhisattva are not mistaken.


    These lines are included because Tibetan tradition also requires a verse in which the author, to counteract pride, belittles himself.  Here, Thogme minimizes his intelligence and learning and states that his verses cannot possibly please scholars.  Nevertheless, because he has based his work on authentic teachings, he has confidence that the verses are free of mistakes and confusion.

     

    Epilogue C
    Supplication to the genuine masters

    Nevertheless, since the vast conduct of a Bodhisattva is difficult to fathom
    For one with an inferior intellect such as mine,
    I pray to the genuine masters to consider with patience
    All my mistakes such as contradictions, incoherence, and so on.

    Thogme has previously stated that because he has relied on unmistaken sources, he is confident his practices are also unmistaken. Now he acknowledges that contradictions and incoherence still may have crept in due to his limited intellectual capacities.  If he has made mistakes like these, he prays the genuine masters will be patient with them.

    By “contradictions”, Thogme means teaching patience toward enemies in one place and advising fighting them in another. “Incoherence” refers to the possibility that his sentences may not flow logically or smoothly because a line has discussed one topic and the next line has jumped to another, unrelated one.


    Epilogue D
    Final dedication and aspiration


    By virtue of the merit gathered here,
    By the power of relative and ultimate bodhichitta,
    May all sentient beings become like the Protector Chenrezig
    Who dwells neither in the extreme of existence nor in that of peace.

    Chenrezig does not abide in cyclic existence, nor is he attached to the state of peace. Why doesn’t he dwell in samsara?  Chenrezig realizes the emptiness that cuts to the root of existence.  Therefore, he does not abide in samsara. And what is the cause that frees Chenerezig from attachment to peace?  His great compassion uproots his wish for nirvana for himself only. Therefore, Thogme prays that all beings become equal to Chenrezig.

     

    The author dedicates to all beings the merit of having composed these practices.  He prays that, like the Protector Chenrezig, who dwells on the Bodhisattva bhumis, they develop absolute bodhichitta freeing them from the bonds of existence, and relative bodhichitta freeing them from attachment to peace.

    Epilogue E
    Place of composition

    The monk Thogme,
    A proponent of scriptures and logic,
    Has composed these verses
    In a cave known as Ngulchu Rinchen Puk
    To benefit himself and others.

     

    Whenever he speaks about Dharma, the author reminds us that his words accord with scripture and logic. By composing these verses, Thogme has benefited himself, as well as others, because the work has increased his wisdom and helped him perfect the two accumulations. Finally, he tells us that he composed this text at Ngulchu Rinchen Puk, The Jewel Cave of Silver Water.

     

     

  • Teddy is flying March 5, 2021

    From Sao Paulo to Zurich, then to Geneva

  • Do not believe March 3, 2021

    ๑.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อตามที่ฟังๆ กันมา
    ๒.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อตามที่ทำต่อๆ กันมา
    ๓.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อตามคำเล่าลือ
    ๔.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อโดยอ้างตำรา
    ๕.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อโดยนึกเดา
    ๖.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อโดยคาดคะเนเอา
    ๗.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อโดยนึกคิดตามแนวเหตุผล
    ๘.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อเพราะถูกกับทฤษฎีของตน
    ๙.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อเพราะมีรูปลักษณ์ที่ควรเชื่อได้
    ๑๐.อย่าเพิ่งเชื่อเพราะผู้พูดเป็นครูบาอาจารย์ของตน

February 2021

January 2021

December 2020

November 2020

  • You fuck with the wrong generation November 30, 2020

    To do list เตรียมรับมือกับการถูกครูคุกคาม เมื่อตัดสินใจจะใส่ไปรเวท

    เมื่อนักเรียนไทยแต่งไปรเวท
    วันที่ 1 ธันวาคมนี้ นักเรียนจะแต่งไปรเวทไปโรงเรียนเป็นครั้งแรกในประวัติศาสตร์ เพื่อส่งเสริมเสรีภาพ ความหลากหลาย ลดภาระค่าใช้จ่ายของผู้ปกครอง และขจัดความเท่าเทียมจอมปลอมออกไป เพื่อปูทางไปสู่การสร้างความเท่าเทียมทางการศึกษาที่แท้จริง กลุ่มนักเรียนระบุว่าจะมีนักเรียนแต่งไปรเวทไปโรงเรียนประมาณ 23 โรงเรียน

    อารยะขัดขืน

    แนวทางการต่อสู้แบบนี้เป็นสันติวิธีที่น่าสนใจ เพราะถือเป็นการอารยขัดขืน (civil disobedience) ตามตำราสันติวิธีโดยแท้ กล่าวคือ (1.) เป็นการฝ่าฝืนระเบียบโดยแจ้งต่อผู้มีอำนาจล่วงหน้า (2.) โดยเห็นว่าระเบียบดังกล่าวไม่ชอบธรรม (3.) พร้อมรับความเจ็บปวดจากการถูกลงโทษเอาไว้เอง (4.) เพื่อปลุกสำนึกความยุติธรรมในกลุ่มประชาชน และเข้าร่วมเปลี่ยนแปลงสังคมให้เป็นธรรมขึ้น

    นอกจากนี้ การแต่งไปรเวทไปโรงเรียน ยังเป็นการเดินเข้าไปในโรงเรียน (walk-in) เข้าไปนั่งในห้องเรียน (sit-in) เข้าไปยืนต่อแถวเคารพธงชาติ (stand-in) เพื่อขอเข้ารับบริการทางการศึกษาจากรัฐด้วย ทุกครั้งที่เกิดปฏิบัติการแบบนี้ขึ้น ผู้เข้าร่วมจะต้องเตรียมพร้อมเพื่อรับมือจากการโดนข่มขู่คุกคาม และความรุนแรงที่อาจเกิดขึ้นจากฝ่ายครูที่ไม่เห็นด้วย เพื่อทำให้การต่อสู้เคลื่อนไหวดำเนินไปอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ

    ปฏิบัติการแบบนี้คล้าย ๆ กับที่เคยเกิดขึ้นแล้ว เมื่อครั้งที่คนผิวดำต่อสู้เรียกร้องสิทธิพลเมืองในสหรัฐอเมริกาในทศวรรษที่ 1970 ในรอบนั้น คนผิวดำเดินเข้าไปเพื่อนั่งเก้าอี้บนรถเมล์ซึ่งปกติมีไว้ให้คนขาวนั่งเท่านั้น เข้าไปตามร้านอาหารที่มีไว้เพื่อคนขาวเท่านั้น รวมไปถึงเข้าไปเรียนในมหาลัยของคนขาวด้วย กรณีเหล่านี้เป็นการแทรกตัวเข้าไปเพื่อขอรับบริการจากรัฐ โดยแสดงออกตัวตนของเขา แต่พวกเขากลับถูกตะคอก ข่มขู่คุกคาม หรือกระทั่งทำร้ายร่างกาย

    อย่างไรก็ตาม พวกเขาซ้อมรับมือกับการถูกข่มขู่คุกคามเหล่านี้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ ทำให้การรณรงค์เคลื่อนไหวขยายตัวไปทั่วประเทศ นำไปสู่การยกเลิกนโยบายแบ่งแยกผิวสีในที่สุด

    ในตอนนั้นคือทศวรรษที่ 1970 ปัจจุบันเราอยู่ในทศวรรษที่ 2020 แล้ว องค์ความรู้ของสันติวิธีพัฒนาไปมาก หากเตรียมพร้อมให้ดี นักเรียนไทยอาจต่อสู้ได้มีประสิทธิภาพยิ่งกว่าขบวนการต่อสู้เพื่อสิทธิพลเมืองของสหรัฐอเมริกาเสียอีก เพื่อเป็นแนวทางสำหรับการเตรียมตัว ผมนำแนวทางที่ได้จาก “คู่มือการมีปัญหากับครู (เมื่อจำเป็น)” ของ วริศ ลิขิตอนุสรณ์ และ “คู่มือการสะท้อนกลับ: กลยุทธ์ต่อต้านความอยุติธรรม” มาประยุกต์ใช้ โดยคำนึงถึงสถานการณ์การข่มขู่คุกคามที่เคยเกิดขึ้นในโรงเรียนในช่วงที่ผ่านมา กลายเป็นแนวทาง 10 ข้อตามด้านล่าง

    คำเตือน: ผมทำได้แค่แนะนำ ถึงเคยผ่านประสบการณ์แย่ ๆ มาคล้าย ๆ คุณ ไม่ได้หมายความ​ว่า​ผมเข้าใจสิ่งที่คุณกำลังเจอ และไม่สามารถรับผิดชอบชีวิตคุณได้ โปรดอ่านแล้วพิจารณา​พลิกแพลงตามความเหมาะสม และคำนึงถึงความเสี่ยงต่ออนาคตของคุณด้วย

    10 ขั้นตอน สู้ครูไดโนเสาร์

    1. เตรียมใจให้พร้อม พูดคุยกับพ่อแม่ให้เข้าใจ หากพ่อแม่ไม่เข้าใจ ให้ติดต่อพ่อแม่ของเพื่อนที่เข้าใจ หรือหน่วยงานหรือบุคคลที่ช่วยคุณได้ หากมีการคุกคาม ให้เขาสแตนบายอยู่บริเวณใกล้เคียงถ้าเป็นไปได้

    2. เมื่อไปโรงเรียน เราหรือเพื่อนก็ได้ เตรียมพร้อมถ่ายวิดิโออยู่เสมอ ถ่ายหน้าผู้กระทำผิดให้ชัด ปกป้องรักษามือถือไว้ อย่าให้ถูกยึดได้ หากจำเป็นในกรณีมือถือโดนยึด ต้องมีเพื่อนพร้อมรับช่วงถ่ายวิดิโอต่อทันที

    3. แคปหลักฐานทุกอย่างไว้ หากมีการคุกคามทางไลน์ หรือแอพส่งข้อความ​อื่น ๆ เช่น เฟสบุ๊ค​ ทวิตเตอร์​ SMS ฯลฯ ถ้าให้ดีเก็บหลักฐานไว้บน cloud ด้วย

    4. เพื่อนเดินตามไปด้วยและถ่ายวิดิโอ ถ้าครูเรียกไปห้องปกครอง ยืนกรานจนกว่าครูจะยอมให้เพื่อนไปถ่ายวิดิโอด้วย หรือยอมถอดใจไปเอง

    5. หาก ผอ. หรือครูคนอื่นอยู่ใกล้ ๆ แล้วเข้ามาผสมโรง ให้เปิดโปงคนเหล่านั้นที่สนับสนุนครูที่ละเมิดคุกคามนักเรียนด้วยถ้าเป็นไปได้ ทั้งวิดิโอ ภาพ เสียง และหลักฐาน

    6. หากครูสั่งให้วิดพื้น ซิทอัพ หรือเรียกไปตี อาจนั่งอยู่เฉย ๆ แล้วหายใจลึก ๆ ถ้าคุณมีความกล้ามากพอ เขาอาจจะเสียงดังขึ้นเรื่อย ๆ และเริ่มขว้างข้าวของ เหมือนจะดิ้นตายเพราะกระหายอำนาจ จงนั่งต่อไป หรือแจ้งระเบียบ​ศึกษาธิการ​ให้เขาทราบ (ถ้ามี)​

    7. หากสถานการณ์​เริ่มไม่ดี ให้เดินออกจากห้องเรียน เดินไปหาครูที่ไว้ใจได้ (ที่ไม่สลิ่ม) หรือสถานที่ปลอดภัยในโรงเรียน พยายามไปเป็นกลุ่มเสมอ โทรเรียกพ่อแม่ตัวเอง หรือพ่อแม่เพื่อน (ที่ไม่สลิ่ม)​ หรือหน่วยงานหรือผู้ใหญ่ที่ไว้ใจได้มารับกลับบ้านหรือพาไปยังที่ปลอดภัย

    8. ถ่ายภาพบาดแผลแยกไว้ หากครูทำร้ายร่างกาย

    9. เก็บหลักฐานที่เกี่ยวกับ​บริบทของเหตุการณ์​ อย่าให้เขาบิดเบือนได้ว่า

    – เราไม่ตั้งใจเรียน จึงโดนลงโทษ
    – เราไม่ยอมทำการบ้าน จึงโดนลงโทษ
    – เราเป็นเด็กไม่มีวินัย จึงโดนลงโทษ
    – “เป็นแค่การเข้าใจผิด”

    เตรียมหลักฐานเอาไว้ชี้แจงต่อสื่อและโซเชียลว่า:

    – ครูสั่งการบ้านจริงหรือไม่ การบ้านอะไร เราทำการบ้านหรือไม่
    – ถ้าผลการเรียนดี ให้เตรียมใบเกรดไว้แสดงต่อสาธารณะ
    – ถ้าผลการเรียนไม่ดี ให้ยืนยันว่าเราตั้งใจเรียนเสมอ
    – ไม่มีใครควรโดนแบบนี้ ไม่ว่าจะผลการเรียนเป็นอย่างไร ครูสั่งการบ้านหรือไม่ก็ตาม
    – ครูจงใจทำร้าย​ เพราะเหตุผลที่ฟังไม่ขึ้น ไม่มีการเข้าใจผิดใด ๆ ทั้งสิ้น
    – ให้เพื่อนและผู้ปกครองช่วยยืนยันข้อเท็จจริงข้างต้น

    10. แชร์ข้อมูลนี้ออกไป เพื่อเตรียมตัวเองให้พร้อม และป้องปราม ให้ครูไดโนเสาร์​หลงยุคเห็น​ว่าจะต้องเจออะไร ถ้าจะคุกคามอนาคตของชาติ YOU FUCK WITH THE WRONG GENERATION

    ไม่​มี​เด็กคนไหนควรต้องมาอ่านไกด์ไลน์นี้ หรือฝึกเอาตัวรอดหฤโหดแบบนี้เลย #ถ้าการเมืองดี
    ขอให้พลังจงสถิตย์แก่ท่าน.

  • Today in Bangkok November 29, 2020

    Today this happen in Bangkok, always thinking of you and your freedom.

    Just the song, but many years ago (underneath)

  • Anne Sylvestre November 25, 2020
  • Emma Kunz (Artist) November 23, 2020

    Emma Kunz, Work No. 013, Photo: © Emma Kunz Zentrum

    Emma Kunz, Work No. 003, Photo: © Emma Kunz Zentrum.

  • Benjamaporn Nivas (Activist) November 22, 2020
  • How beautiful! November 20, 2020

  • The son return November 20, 2020

    You will come back
    I will wait for you

  • เก้าอี้ที่ว่างเปล่า November 19, 2020

    เรายังทุกข์ใจเกินจะเอื้อนเอ่ย
    ความชอกช้ำไม่เคยจางหาย
    ทำไมทิ้งให้เราต้องเดียวดาย
    ส่วนพวกนายหายหน้าไปไหน

    ดินแดนนี้ยังคอยให้เราเปลี่ยน
    เราเคยพากเพียรจำได้ไหม
    เคยร่วมร้องบรรเลงเพลงยิ่งใหญ่
    บัดนี้ไยพวกนายไม่มา

    เราเคยคุยกันที่ตรงหน้าต่าง
    ออกเดินทางไปพร้อมความกล้า
    ปลุกระดมพี่น้องปวงประชา
    ด้วยวาจาร้อนแรง
    ด้วยไฟที่แฝงในคำที่กล่าว
    สุดท้ายไยกลายเป็นว่างเปล่า
    ในยามเช้าบนแนวปราการ…เท่านั้น

    โอ้เพื่อนเอ๋ย เพื่อนเอย ฉันแน่ใจ
    นายคงให้อภัยที่ฉัน
    ไม่ได้หายล้มตายไปด้วยกัน
    ดังที่เคยสัญญากันไว้

    วิญญาณพวกนายคงมาเยี่ยมเยือน
    เงาที่เห็นมาเตือนใช่ไหม
    ความโศกศัลย์นั้นเกินจะพูดไป
    ในหัวใจฉันปวดรวดร้าว

    โอ้เพื่อนเอ๋ย อย่าถามถึงโลกใหม่
    โลกที่ไร้สิ้นฤดูหนาว
    ยามได้เห็นเก้าอี้ที่ว่างเปล่า
    ทุกเรื่องราวมลายหายสิ้น

    I will see you one day in the future

  • 1932 November 19, 2020

    We want to put the monarchy under the constitution as it was already decided in 1932.

  • Johann Sebastian Bach November 18, 2020
  • What happened to them? November 18, 2020

    In commemoration of the political uprising of 14 October 1973 against Thailand’s despotic regime, FORSEA produces this short animation depicting the ongoing trend of state violence against critics of the current Thai regime.

    From 2016 to 2020, at least ten activists residing outside Thai borders were killed, abducted and forcedly disappeared. Most of them happened to be anti-monarchists.

    The Thai state has denied any responsibility behind these crimes. Yet, it has also adopted a lacklustre attitude in the probe into the cases, prompting the public to become convinced of the involvement of the state, as well as the palace, in the crimes.

    FORSEA continues to urge Thai authorities to seriously investigate these crimes in order to bring justice to the families of the affected activists.

    เพื่อเป็นการรำลึกถึงการชุมนุมใหญ่ที่มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์เพื่อขับไล่เผด็จการในวันที่ 14 ตุลาคม 2516 และการชุมนุมในกรุงเทพในวันนี้ วันที่ 14 ตุลาคม เพื่อเป็นการเรียกร้องให้มีการปฏิรูปสถาบันกษัตริย์ ให้อยู่ภายใต้รัฐธรรมนูญ​ องค์กร FORSEA ขอนำเสนอคลิปสั้นๆ เพื่อตอกย้ำถึงการใช้ความรุนแรงของรัฐต่อประชาชนผู้เห็นต่าง ตั้งแต่ปี 2559 ถึงปีปัจจุบัน มีนักกิจกรรมอย่างน้อย 10 คนที่ลี้ภัยอยู่ประเทศเพื่อนบ้าน ต้องถูกสังหาร ถูกลักพาตัวและบังคับให้สูญหาย คนเหล่านี้ถูกมองว่าเป็นคนวิจารณ์สถาบันกษัตริย์ รัฐไทยยังคงปฏิเสธความรับผิดชอบเบื้องหลังอาชญากรรมเหล่านี้ แต่ขณะเดียวกัน ก็ไม่สนใจใยดีที่จะสืบสวนคดีเหล่านี้อย่างจริงจัง ยิ่งสร้างความกังขาให้กับประชาชนเกี่ยวกับการรู้เห็นของรัฐไทยและสถาบันกษัตริย์ ต่อการจัดการกับผู้เห็นต่างด้วยวิธีการผิดกฎหมายแบบนั้น องค์กร FORSEA ขอเรียกร้องให้รัฐบาลไทยสืบสวนคดีเหล่านี้อย่างจริงจัง เพื่อคืนความยุติธรรมให้กับครอบครัวของเหยื่อเหล่านั้น

  • Beauty and the Beast November 15, 2020
  • Cogs November 15, 2020

    One day we will be free again together

  • Crawling servants November 14, 2020

    Does the Thai monarchy still think it is a good idea in 2020 for King Vajiralongkorn to be surrounded by crawling servants?

  • I am sorry for Thailand November 14, 2020

    You know what they did to you,
    You now know this song is true.
    All my love to you.

  • ปฏิรูป, ปฏิรูป November 13, 2020
  • Shine November 8, 2020

    Shine Mr. H., shine, shine.

  • Pendulum waves November 6, 2020
  • You are your own November 4, 2020

    2500 years ago, Buddha said:

    You are your own master, who else can be your master?

  • The new light November 3, 2020

    Do you remember the orange light you received in Chiang Mai?
    This one here is quite similar.
    Look at it, it look good.

  • Francisco Ferrer November 2, 2020

    They killed him, but he was a very nice man.

October 2020

  • George Santayana (Philosopher) October 31, 2020

    16 December 1863 in Madrid, Spain – 26 September 1952 in Rome, Italy

    Some quotes from his books:

    Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.

    The truth is cruel, but it can be loved, and it makes free those who have loved it.

    To the mind of the ancients, who knew something of such matters, liberty and prosperity seemed hardly compatible, yet modern liberalism wants them together.

    Beauty as we feel it is something indescribable: what it is or what it means can never be said.

    Our dignity is not in what we do, but in what we understand.

    Professional philosophers are usually only apologists: that is, they are absorbed in defending some vested illusion or some eloquent idea. Like lawyers or detectives, they study the case for which they are retained.

    I like to walk about amidst the beautiful things that adorn the world; but private wealth I should decline, or any sort of personal possessions, because they would take away my liberty.

    Only the dead have seen the end of war.

    No system would have ever been framed if people had been simply interested in knowing what is true, whatever it may be. What produces systems is the interest in maintaining against all comers that some favourite or inherited idea of ours is sufficient and right.

    Skepticism is the chastity of the intellect, and it is shameful to surrender it too soon or to the first comer: there is nobility in preserving it coolly and proudly through long youth, until at last, in the ripeness of instinct and discretion, it can be safely exchanged for fidelity and happiness.

  • Santiago de Chile October 31, 2020

    If we had made it to Santiago de Chile, we would have seen all this. We believed in human rights, but they do not respect human rights, they do not respect love, they are not humans, they are robots. They destroy forests, seas, people, full nations, enslave animals, kill them all just to eat them. Nothing kind.

    In Chile in 2019, the people kicked out a bad gouvernement. In Santiago de Chile, in October, November and December 2019 the people keep on singing this beautiful song.

    The title of the song in English is:
    “The people united will never be defeated”.

    El pueblo unido, jamás será vencido,
    El pueblo unido jamás será vencido…
    El pueblo unido jamás será vencido…
    El pueblo unido jamás será vencido…
    De pie, cantar
    Que vamos a triunfar.
    Avanzan ya
    Banderas de unidad.
    Y tú vendrás
    Marchando junto a mí
    Y así verás
    Tu canto y tu bandera florecer.
    La luz
    De un rojo amanecer
    Anuncia ya
    La vida que vendrá.
    De pie, luchar
    El pueblo va a triunfar.
    Será mejor
    La vida que vendrá
    A conquistar
    Nuestra felicidad
    Y en un clamor
    Mil voces de combate se alzarán,
    Dirán
    Canción de libertad,
    Con decisión
    La patria vencerá.
    Y ahora el pueblo
    Que se alza en la lucha
    Con voz de gigante
    Gritando: ¡adelante!
    El pueblo unido, jamás será vencido,
    El pueblo unido jamás será vencido…
    La patria está
    Forjando la unidad.
    De norte a sur
    Se movilizará
    Desde el salar
    Ardiente y mineral
    Al bosque austral
    Unidos en la lucha y el trabajo
    Irán,
    La patria cubrirán.
    Su paso ya
    Anuncia el porvenir.
    De pie, cantar
    El pueblo va a triunfar.
    Millones ya,
    Imponen la verdad,
    De acero son
    Ardiente batallón,
    Sus manos van
    Llevando la justicia y la razón.
    Mujer,
    Con fuego y con valor,
    Ya estás aquí
    Junto al trabajador.
    Y ahora el pueblo
    Que se alza en la lucha
    Con voz de gigante
    Gritando: ¡adelante!
    El pueblo unido, jamás será vencido,
    El pueblo unido jamás será vencido…

  • Victor Jara October 30, 2020

    Victor Jara’s last song, just two hours before they killed him in 1973. The dictator Pinochet killed him. They did not killed me yet. They wanted so much to see me dead, I am still alive. Broken, very broken, but alive. I want to see you again.

    The first (here underneath) is partly incorrect.

    The second (here underneath) is said to be the true poem he last wrote.

  • Penguin October 27, 2020

    Keep fighting my so very dear mini man

  • The true is not on television October 26, 2020

    Television is just there to scare people and then to control them

  • Belmarsh Prison October 26, 2020
  • The Nuremberg Code October 24, 2020

    1. Voluntary consent is essential
    2. The results of any experiment must be for the greater good of society
    3. Human experiments should be based on previous animal experimentation
    4. Experiments should be conducted by avoiding physical/mental suffering and injury
    5. No experiments should be conducted if it is believed to cause death/disability
    6. The risks should never exceed the benefits
    7. Adequate facilities should be used to protect subjects
    8. Experiments should be conducted only by qualified scientists
    9. Subjects should be able to end their participation at any time
    10. The scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment when injury, disability, or death is likely to occur

  • Torture in Canada October 24, 2020
  • Peter Paul Rubens October 23, 2020

  • เยาวชนปลดแอก October 21, 2020

    Long life to เยาวชนปลดแอก

  • เผด็จการจงพินาศ​ ประชาราษฎร์จงเจริญ October 21, 2020

  • Salvador Dalí (Painter) October 21, 2020

  • Headache Stencil (Artist) October 20, 2020

  • หวิดวุ่น ! October 19, 2020
  • Violence, more violence October 19, 2020
  • Injustice in Thailand October 19, 2020
  • ประยุทธ์ต้องออกไป! October 18, 2020

    1.ประยุทธ์ต้องออกไป!
    2.ต้องร่างรัฐธรรมนูญใหม่!
    3.ปฏิรูปสถาบันกษัตริย์ให้อยู่ภายใต้รัฐธรรมนูญอย่างแท้จริง

  • นตฺถิ สนฺติ ปรํ สุขํ October 17, 2020

    สภานิสิต มจร. สถาบันการศึกษาสงฆ์ ออกแถลงการณ์ ขอหยุดใช้ความรุนแรงกับประชาชน

    นตฺถิ สนฺติ ปรํ สุขํ.
    สุขอื่นยิ่งกว่าความสงบไม่มีฯ

    พระพุทธศาสนาได้อุบัติขึ้นมาในช่วงที่มนุษย์ถูกกดขี่อิสรภาพ มีการถือชั้นวรรณะ เป็นการจำกัดสิทธิและหน้าที่ของมนุษย์ ยังผลให้เกิดความเหลื่อมล้ำต่ำสูงไม่เท่าเทียมกันในสังคม โดยเฉพาะสังคมชนชั้นของอินเดีย ในสมัยนั้นได้ตกอยู่ภายใต้การปกครองของชนชาติอริยกะ ซึ่งเป็นผู้ผูกขาดอำนาจแต่เพียงเผ่าเดียว จนกระทั่งพระพุทธองค์ได้อุบัติขึ้นในโลก ทรงปฏิเสธการถือชั้นวรรณะทั้ง 4 คือ พราหมณ์ กษัตริย์ แพศย์ ศูทร

    การเมืองและสันติภาพเป็นสิ่งที่พระพุทธองค์ให้ความสำคัญที่จะปลดปล่อยมนุษย์ให้อยู่ร่วมกันอย่างสันติสุข ทรงต่อสู้กับแนวทางการปกครองที่ถือชั้นวรรณะ การเอาเปรียบซึ่งกันและกัน มาสู่ความเสมอภาคกัน และมีเสรีภาพในการดำรงชีวิต

    พระพุทธเจ้าทรงใช้หลักสันติวิธีในการปฏิเสธการมีขึ้นของชั้นวรรณะ เหมือนที่เยาวชน นิสิต นักศึกษา และประชาชน พยายามใช้ในการชุมนุม เพื่อร่วมกันหาทางออกได้ดีที่สุด แต่ทางฝ่ายรัฐกลับพยายามเลี่ยงที่จะใช้สันติวิธีกับกลุ่มเยาวชนฯ กลับสร้างสถานการณ์ ปิดกั้นสื่อ บิดเบือนข้อมูล จับกลุ่มแกนนำโดยใช้กฎหมายที่ไม่เป็นไปตามระบอบสากล

    สภานิสิตมหาวิทยาลัยมหาจุฬาลงกรณราชวิทยาลัย (มจร.) ไม่สนับสนุนการใช้ความรุนแรงทุกรูปแบบของเจ้าหน้าที่รัฐต่อประชาชน และขอให้เจ้าหน้าที่รัฐตระหนักว่าการกระทำความรุนแรงทุกรูปแบบไม่ควรเกิดขึ้น พร้อมทั้งขอให้ตระหนักถึงการอยู่ร่วมกันอย่างสันติสุขโดยปราศจากการเบียดเบียน ภายใต้การใช้กฎหมายที่ไม่เป็นธรรม

  • Voilent gouvernement October 17, 2020
  • Dictature in Thailand October 17, 2020
  • นักเรียน October 16, 2020

    นักเรียน นักศึกษา เด็กมัธยม ประชาชน มีเพียงสองมือเปล่า

    ระบอบประยุทธ์และเจ้าของกำลังเป็นทรราชย์โดยสมบูรณ์แบบ

    หากเจ้าหน้าที่ยังพอมีความเป็นมนุษย์หลงเหลืออยู่บ้าง อย่าเป็นเครื่องมือทรราชย์ หยุดฟังคำสั่งนาย หยุดใช้ความรุนแรงกับผู้ชุมนุมโดยทันที วางอาวุธ แล้วมายืนข้างประชาชนเถอะครับ

    Piyabutr Saengkanokkul

  • 15 October 2020 October 15, 2020
  • 1973 October 14, 2020


    The monarchy was taken by surprise by the events of 1973 and withdrew support from the junta. In a famous incident, as soldiers were murdering protesters on the streets, Bhumibol opened the gates of Chitralada Palace to allow students to take refuge there.

  • Lullaby for a Princess October 13, 2020

    Fate has been cruel and order unkind
    How can I have sent you away?
    The blame was my own, the punishment, yours
    The harmony’s silent today

    But into the stillness I’ll bring you a song
    And I will your company keep
    ‘Till your tired eyes and my lullabies
    Have carried you softly to sleep

    Once did a pony who shone like the sun
    Look out on her kingdom and sigh
    She smiled and said, “Surely, there is no pony
    So lovely and so well beloved as I”

    So great was her reign and so brilliant her glory
    That long was the shadow she cast
    Which fell dark upon the young sister she loved
    And grew only darker as days and nights passed

    Lullay moon princess, goodnight sister mine
    Rest now in moonlight’s embrace
    Bear up my lullaby, winds of the earth
    Through cloud, and through sky, and through space

    Carry the peace and the coolness of night
    And carry my sorrow in kind
    Luna, you’re loved so much more than you know
    Forgive me for being so blind

    Soon did that pony take notice that others
    Did not give her sister her due
    And neither had she loved her as she deserved
    She watched as her sister’s unhappiness grew

    But such is the way of the limelight, it sweetly
    Takes hold of the mind of its host
    And that foolish pony did nothing to stop
    The destruction of one who had needed her most

    Lullay moon princess, goodnight sister mine
    Rest now, in moonlight’s embrace
    Bear up my lullaby, winds of the earth
    Through cloud, and through sky, and through space

    Carry the peace and the coolness of night
    And carry my sorrow in kind
    Luna, you’re loved so much more than you know
    May troubles be far from your mind
    And forgive me for being so blind

    The years now before us
    Fearful and unknown
    I never imagined
    I’d face them on my own

    May these thousand winters
    Swiftly pass, I pray
    I love you, I miss you
    All these miles away

    May all your dreams be sweet tonight
    Safe upon your bed of moonlight
    And know not of sadness, pain, or care
    And when I dream, I’ll fly away and meet you there

    Sleep
    Sleep
    Sleep

  • Teddy today October 10, 2020

  • Ram Das (Philosopher) October 9, 2020

    Ram Dass (born Richard Alpert)
    April 6, 1931 – December 22, 2019

    Dear Mr. Harry, I will be waiting for you even when I am old.

  • Lis Kocher (Painter) October 6, 2020

    Lis Kocher

  • Rowan Atkinson October 5, 2020

    Mr. Bean speak for free speech

  • Dumb and dumber October 1, 2020

September 2020

  • Today in Chiang Mai September 29, 2020
  • Hand in hand September 28, 2020

    “เราจักบรรลุชัยในวันหนึ่ง ด้วยลึกซึ้งศรัทธามหาศาล ผสานมือประสานใจอีกไม่นาน เราจักพานพบสันติสถาพรฯ”

  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe September 28, 2020

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832

    Erlkönig
    Originally in German

    Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind?
    Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind;
    Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm,
    Er faßt ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm.

    Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht? –
    Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht?
    Den Erlenkönig mit Kron’ und Schweif? –
    Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif.

    “Du liebes Kind, komm, geh mit mir!
    Gar schöne Spiele spiel’ ich mit dir;
    Manch’ bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand,
    Meine Mutter hat manch gülden Gewand.” –

    Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht,
    Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht? –
    Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind;
    In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind. –

    “Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehn?
    Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön;
    Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reihn,
    Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein.” –

    Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dort
    Erlkönigs Töchter am düstern Ort? –
    Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh’ es genau:
    Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau. –

    “Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt;
    Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch’ ich Gewalt.” –
    Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt faßt er mich an!
    Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan! –

    Dem Vater grauset’s; er reitet geschwind,
    Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind,
    Erreicht den Hof mit Mühe und Not;
    In seinen Armen das Kind war tot.

    In English

    Who rides there so late through the night dark and drear?
    The father it is, with his infant so dear;
    He holdeth the boy tightly clasp’d in his arm,
    He holdeth him safely, he keepeth him warm.

    My son, wherefore seek’st thou thy face thus to hide? –
    Look, father, the Erl-King is close by our side!
    Dost see not the Erl-King, with crown and with train? –
    My son, ’tis the mist rising over the plain. –

    “Oh, come, thou dear infant! oh come thou with me!
    For many a game I will play there with thee;
    On my strand, lovely flowers their blossoms unfold,
    My mother shall grace thee with garments of gold.” –

    My father, my father, and dost thou not hear
    The words that the Erl-King now breathes in mine ear? –
    Be calm, dearest child, ’tis thy fancy deceives;
    ‘Tis the sad wind that sighs through the withering leaves. –

    “Wilt go, then, dear infant, wilt go with me there?
    My daughters shall tend thee with sisterly care;
    My daughters by night their glad festival keep,
    They’ll dance thee, and rock thee, and sing thee to sleep.” –

    My father, my father, and dost thou not see,
    How the Erl-King his daughters has brought here for me? –
    My darling, my darling, I see it aright,
    ‘Tis the aged grey willows deceiving thy sight. –

    “I love thee, I’m charm’d by thy beauty, dear boy!
    And if thou’rt unwilling, then force I’ll employ.” –
    My father, my father, he seizes me fast,
    For sorely the Erl-King has hurt me at last. –

    The father now gallops, with terror half wild,
    He grasps in his arms the poor shuddering child;
    He reaches his courtyard with toil and with dread, –
    The child in his arms finds he motionless, dead.

  • Crazy in Thailand September 28, 2020
  • They wanted to kill me September 24, 2020
  • สอพลอ September 23, 2020

    เนื้อเพลง
    (Pre-Hook) x 4
    สิทธิ์ที่ต้องมี แต่ไม่มี เพราะคนสอพลอ

    (Hook)
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… รัฐธรรมนูญแม่งสอพลอ…
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… ชี้นิ้วเลือกคนมาสอพลอ
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… กกต.ก็สอพลอ…
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… ที่มาของพวกมึงแม่งสอพลอ…
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… โหวตในสภาแม่งสอพลอ
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… ไม่อยากพูดเยอะเดี๋ยวเจ็บคอ
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… ขึ้นต้นด้วยสอ ลงด้วยอ้อ
    สอพลอ… สอพลอ… 250 คนสอพลอ

    (Dif Kids)
    โบกธงสามสี ยกมือไหว้สามที
    พวกเราเป็นคนดีที่สุดในปฐพี
    ก็หลังจากนั้นสี่ปี ไม่เหมือนถ้อยคำวลี
    คนจริงที่จะเลือกก็ถูกจำกัดเรื่องเก้าอี้
    บางคนก็น้อมนำด้วยคำสอน
    บางคนก็คัดค้านบอกกัญชามันพาหลอน
    ขอแค่ทำจริงไม่เอาสิ่งที่สนอง
    หาเสียงกันไปทำไม ถ้าคืนนั้นหมายังหอน
    การเลือกตั้งมันน่าตลก มีบางคนช่วยเลือกนายก
    กล่องเลือกตั้งไม่น่าเคารพ เล่นลูกไม้คล้ายอุซป
    ปากมหัศจรรย์ สอพลอพี่น้องกันไปวันๆ
    ปากกาในมือจะเลือกใครกัน หรือเราต้องเลือกตามกรรมพันธุ์
    เลวก็เลวทุกวัน ไม่เอาคนคนดีแค่ในบางวัน
    ไม่ใช่คนดูในอัฒจันทร์ ประเทศกูเจ๊งใครรับประกัน

    (K.Aglet)
    ประจบสอพลอไม่ใช่เรื่องแปลก
    ที่ตั้งตารอมีแต่เพื่อนแดก
    ที่มึงกินอยู่มันไม่มีรสชาติ
    อยากมีอำนาจ คุณค่าเขาวัดที่เครื่องแบบ
    ที่มึงบอกไม่แฟร์
    กูไม่แล ตอแย วอแวกูก็ไม่แคร์หรอก
    You know who i am
    อย่าจอแจ งอแง แค่กลโกงในมือกูแบออก
    พวกมึงมี plan แต่ไม่มี point
    มีอุดมการณ์มีแรงแต่ไม่มี voice
    อำนาจของกูล้นมืออย่าให้มี noise
    เข้าใจที่กูพูด แล้วมึงต้อง choose me boy
    เล่นน้ำตาแทบย้อย
    ออกคำสั่งเรียบร้อย และข้าน้อยห้ามติ
    50 ล้านคน เริ่มจะไม่มี choice
    เพราะว่ามีค่าน้อย กว่า 250

    (Hook)

    (Pre-Hook) x 4

    (G-Bear)
    หยุดหลอกตัวเองมึงอย่าแถ
    ได้จะคืบจะเอาศอกมึงอย่ามักมาก
    หวงตำแหน่งหวงก้างมึงไม่ได้รักชาติ
    และกูโครตไม่พอใจอยากให้มึงรับทราบ
    มึงมันไม่เหมาะสม จงสำเหนียกตัวเองบ้าง
    อยากกระโดดถีบปากแต่กูเองก็เกรงว่า
    ต้องควบคุมอารมณ์ไม่อยากให้ตัวกูเองบ้า
    ตอนมึงเคารพคนผิดเหมือนกับยืนตรงร้องเพลงชาติ

    (HOCKHACKER)
    ถ้าพูดถึงจำพวกคนสอพลอ
    จำนวนเหล่านั้นมีผบ.เผ่าลับ
    จำนวนที่เหลือคือคนที่ถูกเลือก
    จากกลุ่ม คน สิ้น ชื่อ. เหล่านั้น
    ให้คัดเลือกกันเอง ให้เค้าเลือกกันมา
    แล้วมาจบที่การแต่งตั้ง
    จัดให้เลือกผู้แทน แต่มึงคุมชะตา
    มึงอย่าหวังว่าคนไม่แบ่งข้าง
    Fuck you คนที่ชอบประจบสอพลอ
    และที่กูไม่ใช้ ว แหวน
    เพราะกูไม่อยากไปที่สน.
    ในคดีเผด็จการที่มึงวางแผน
    ประชาชน เลือกผู้แทน ในครั้งนี้
    เอาอำนาจ คนสอพลอ เข้ามาชี้
    มอบหน้าที่ นั่งสปา คุมอำนาจ
    ได้สอพลอ 250 มาคุมชาติ

    (Hook)

    (Pre-Hook) x 4

  • Iggy Pop – Gold September 23, 2020

    Missing you, wondering where you are. I belive you will like this song. Let’s never stop singing if possible.

  • Behind these prison walls September 22, 2020

    A song for Julian Assange and you and me

  • 20 September 2020 September 20, 2020

    หมุดคณะราษฎรหมุดที่ 2 เป็นหมุดทองเหลือง ขนาดเส้นผ่านศูนย์กลางยาว 11.6 นิ้ว​ ฝังอยู่บนพื้นปูนซีเมนต์ในท้องสนามหลวง ฝั่งถนนหน้าพระลาน​ มีข้อความว่า “ณ ที่นี้ 20 กันยายน 2563 SEP 20, 2020 เวลาย่ำรุ่ง ผองราษฎรได้แสดงเจตนารมณ์ ประเทศนี้เป็นของราษฎร ไม่ใช่สมบัติของกษัตริย์ตามที่เขาหลอกลวง” จัดทำขึ้นโดยกลุ่มแนวร่วมธรรมศาสตร์และการชุมนุม ในการชุมนุมประท้วง #19 กันยาทวงอำนาจคืนราษฎร มีพิธีฝังหมุดเมื่อวันที่ 20 กันยายน 2563 โดยมีกลุ่มแกนนำผู้จัดกิจกรรมเป็นผู้ฝังหมุด

  • 19 September 2020 September 20, 2020

  • Violent teacher September 19, 2020

  • Where is my freedom September 19, 2020

  • So many are missing September 19, 2020

  • แด่เธอผู้เป็นดวงใจและ September 17, 2020

    นักต่อสู้กับอารมณ์อ่อนไหว
    แม้เพียงเสี้ยวเวลาอันแสนงาม
    ก็พอที่หล่อเลี้ยงอุดมคติให้แช่มชื่น
    มีพลังเพื่ออนาคตและเพื่อเธอ

    แด่เธอผู้เป็นดวงใจและไฟแห่งฝัน
    แด่เธอผู้เป็นพลังให้ฉันสู้ต่อไป
    แด่เธอคนดีเส้นทางเสรีที่คนเท่ากัน
    แด่เธอจนวันที่ความใฝ่ฝันสร้างสรรค์เป็นจริง

    มอบความรักเพื่อเธอเอาไว้ มอบดวงใจเพื่ออุดมการณ์
    กี่ขวากหนาม จะสู้ไม่หวั่น เพียงได้กำลังใจจากเธอ

  • ไผ่ ดาวดิน และเพื่อน September 17, 2020
  • This is how I feel September 14, 2020

  • เด็กเลว September 14, 2020
  • September 14, 2020

    How are you today Mister H.?

  • Thai exiles September 13, 2020

  • David Hume (Philosopher) September 13, 2020

    David Hume
    7 May 1711 – 25 August 1776

    David Hume’s Essays, Moral and Political, 1742, includes this statement:

    “Beauty in things exists merely in the mind which contemplates them.”

  • Fuck Prayuth September 12, 2020

  • Back to Switzerland September 12, 2020

    Rama IX goes back to Switzerland

  • Keep on fighting for justice September 12, 2020
  • So sad in Thailand September 12, 2020
  • Wi-Fi and 5G September 11, 2020

    Stay away as much as possible from Wi-Fi and 5G.
    All my love to you today.
    Take care.

  • ข้าไม่เคยลืม September 8, 2020

  • Good adults September 8, 2020
  • Save Thai democracy September 7, 2020

  • Enough September 7, 2020

    พอกันทีอบรมมารยาทตอนเช้าและฝึกหมอบกราบ

  • Take some rest September 7, 2020
  • What is refuge in Buddhism? September 5, 2020
  • 10 August 2020 September 5, 2020
  • You lost your freedom September 5, 2020

    My dear, I know you lost your freedom, I am so sorry for that. I am around and hope to see you soon.

  • Red bowl September 5, 2020
  • My job is over September 5, 2020

    My job outside the prison is over

  • Stairway to haven September 4, 2020
  • Submarine September 3, 2020

  • Which one will you choose? September 3, 2020

    เยาวชนจะเลือกอนาคตแบบไหนยกมือหรือชู 3 นิ้วขึ้น

  • หมุดนี่ก็หาย September 3, 2020

    หมุดนี่ก็หาย​ ตึกนั่นก็ถูกทุบ​ อนุสาวรีย์​ยังอุ้มหายไร้ร่องรอย​ได้​ -​ผู้มีอำนาจพากเพียรเหลือเกินในการพยายามทำให้ประชาชนลืมความสำคัญ​ของวันที่

August 2020

  • Never forget August 30, 2020

    เราต้องไม่ลืมว่ามีคนตายจริงๆ เพราะต่อต้านเผด็จการ ถ้าการเมืองดีจะไม่มีคนตายแบบนี้อีกต่อไป

  • หยุดคุกคามประชาชน August 30, 2020

    หยุดคุกคามประชาชน

  • ที่ถูกรัฐบาลโขมยความฝันไป August 30, 2020

    หนูมาในฐานะเยาวชน ที่ถูกรัฐบาลโขมยความฝันไป

  • สหาย August 29, 2020
  • ได้ยินผู้คนร้องเพลงไหม? August 29, 2020
  • L’indifférence (BlogSpot) August 28, 2020
    Je leur ai dit les vérités les plus désobligeantes, mais ils ne se sont pas fâchés. Je me suis mis à genoux pour leur écrire, mais ils ne se sont pas apitoyés. Je les ai  insultés grossièrement, mais ils ne se sont pas sentis offensés. J’ai voulu les faire rire, ou exciter leur curiosité, mais ce fut en vain. Je n’ai réussi à éveiller en eux, ni les grands sentiments, ni les appétits vulgaires. Je n’ai pu provoquer chez eux aucune réaction. J’aurais mieux fait de parler à des pierres. Ils n’ont pas de sentiments. Ils ne savent pas haïr. Ils ne savent pas se venger. La pitié leur demeure étrangère. Ils travaillent automatiquement et ignorent tout ce qui n’est pas inscrit au programme. Je pourrais déchirer un lambeau de ma chair et écrire une pétition dessus, avec mon sang encore chaud, et ils ne a liraient quand même pas. Ils la jetteraient à la corbeille à papiers comme ils l’ont fait pour les autres. Ils ne verraient même pas que c’est un lambeau de ma chair, de chair humaine encore chaude. L’homme leur est indifférent. C’est l’indifférence du Citoyen vis-à-vis de l’homme, indifférence qui a fini par  surpasser celle des machines.
    Livre : La vingt-cinquième heure
    Écrivain : Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu
    Première date de parution : 1949
    Pages : 448
  • เสรีภาพนำทางชาวประชา August 28, 2020


    Liberty leading the people

    ศิลปะต่อต้าน (Resistance Art) คือศิลปะที่ถูกใช้เพื่อต่อต้านผู้มีอำนาจอันฉ้อฉล หรือต่อต้านสงคราม ความรุนแรง การแบ่งแยก กดขี่ แนวคิดนี้ปรากฏอยู่ในหลายแขนงศิลปะ ตั้งแต่ศิลปะตามขนบ จนถึงมีมในอินเตอร์เน็ต

  • Where are you? August 27, 2020

    Where are you? What are you doing? Did you find a good friend? Did they hurt you?

  • End the silence August 27, 2020
  • แด่เธอผู้เป็นพลังให้ฉันสู้ต่อไป August 27, 2020

    นักต่อสู้กับอารมณ์อ่อนไหว
    แม้เพียงเวลาอันแสนงาม
    ก็พอที่หล่อเลี้ยงอุดมคติให้แช่มชื่น
    มีพลังเพื่ออนาคตและเพื่อเธอ

    แด่เธอผู้เป็นดวงใจและไฟแห่งฝัน
    แด่เธอผู้เป็นพลังให้ฉันสู้ต่อไป
    แด่เธอคนดีเส้นทางเสรีที่คนเท่ากัน
    แด่เธอจนวันที่ความใฝ่ฝันสร้างสรรค์เป็นจริง

    มอบความรักเพื่อเธอเอาไว้ มอบดวงใจเพื่ออุดมการณ์
    กี่ขวากหนาม จะสู้ไม่หวั่น เพียงได้กำลังใจจากเธอ

  • เงินสั่งมา August 27, 2020
  • อาญาเถื่อน August 27, 2020
  • หมายรักจากเรือนจำ August 27, 2020

    อยุ่เรือนจำมานานแรมปี
    โถคนดีพี่ใจจะขาด
    คิดถึงแม่ยอดพิศวาส
    สมเพชอนาถตัวเองเหลือเกิน
    ถึงต้องทนหม่นหมองอย่างนี้
    โถคนดีงกๆเงิ่นๆ
    น่าสรรเสริญทีรักของพี่
    หนทางลำบาก ฝนลงหนาวสั่น
    โอ้แม่จอมขวัญยอดชู้คนดี
    หัวใจซื่อตรงยังคงมั่น
    ถึงต้องรออีกนานเท่าไหร่
    โถมจนตายแต่หมายคาดว่า
    ใช่ไหมเวลาพิสูจน์คน
    เห็นไหมหนทางพิสูจน์ม้า

  • ปลายอุโมงค์ (Music) August 27, 2020
  • You know that they lie August 27, 2020

    You know that they lie, so don’t believe them.
    If you know one that does not lie, he is your friend.
    Most of the time, you are alone.

  • Somsak Jeamteerasakul (Exiled) August 27, 2020
  • Billie Eilish and her brother August 27, 2020

    Video unavailable here
    Watch it on YouTube

  • A new constitution August 26, 2020

    My dear, If possible, never stop studying. Listen to this video, if you understand a little bit, it is fine, no need to understand it all.
    They try to help the people to understand, not to fight, to go forward.
    They try.

    The short version (above)

    The long version (above)

  • Political party August 26, 2020

    There is hope for a good future

    Future Forward Party (Anakotmai) is now Move Forward Party (Phak Kao Klai)


    The torch is burning bright with love and intelligence

  • Future Forward in Chiang Mai August 25, 2020

    อนาคตใหม่่่​ เชียงใหม่

     

     

    https://m.facebook.com/ChiangMaiProgressiveMovement/videos/2255683214695164/

    https://m.facebook.com/ChiangMaiProgressiveMovement/videos/2255683214695164/

    https://m.facebook.com/ChiangMaiProgressiveMovement/videos/2255683214695164/

     

  • FCCT August 25, 2020

    You can understand à big part of that, give it a try.

  • Tattep Ruangprapaikitseree August 25, 2020

  • CMU August 25, 2020
  • Sorry they lie to you August 24, 2020
  • Feng E August 24, 2020

    Lyrics of the song translated from Korean with Google Translate

    If you are sad, don’t listen to slow songs
    You’ve wept too strongly, you’ve hurt too deeply
    You’ve loved too foolishly
    You’ve cried as if the end of the world is coming
    Oh oh

    So you’ve been listening to slow songs that are really
    Really slow and they are breaking you heart
    Isn’t in about time to change the rhythm?
    Oh oh

    Don’t ask yourself, who’s right; who’s wrong
    Who’s innocent; who’s to blame or who’s in the whose debt?
    A mistake has been made; a game has been lost
    At least you’ve got yourself to keep you happy

    I don’t care who you belong to or who belongs to you
    I belong to me an no other
    Let your heartbeat along the music and feel alive
    I don’t care if I stand, sit, lie prone or lie on my back
    I shall be happy no matter what
    Let the deafening music beat along the rhythm
    Don’t care don’t think; don’t wait and don’t be unhappy
    If you are sad, don’t listen to slow songs

    Life is full of separations and unions love is full of pull and pushes
    the path is full meanders and detours
    But I still look forward to the new landscape that shall come whit tomorrow
    Oh oh

    All angry youth have learnt to let go all the bachelors have fallen in love
    All tragedies have had happy ending
    All conflicts have been resolved with doves of peace
    Oh oh

    Don’t ask yourself, who’s right; who’s wrong
    Who’s innocent; who’s to blame or who’s in the whose debt?
    A mistake has been made; a game has been lost
    At least you’ve got yourself to keep you happy

    I don’t care who you belong to or who belongs to you
    I belong to me an no other
    Let your heartbeat along the music and feel alive
    I don’t care if I stand, sit, lie prone or lie on my back
    I shall be happy no matter what
    Let the deafening music beat along the rhythm
    Don’t care don’t think; don’t wait and don’t be unhappy
    If you are sad, don’t listen to slow songs

    I don’t care who you belong to or who belongs to you
    I belong to me an no other
    Let your heartbeat along the music and feel alive
    I don’t care if I stand, sit, lie prone or lie on my back
    I shall be happy no matter what
    Let the deafening music beat along the rhythm
    Don’t care, don’t think; don’t wait
    Right here and right now
    You’ve got to stay happy through the end
    Don’t care don’t think; don’t wait and don’t be unhappy
    If you are sad, don’t listen to slow songs

  • รสังหารหมู่ที่มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์ปี August 24, 2020
  • Glenn Gould August 23, 2020
  • Estas Tonne (Music) August 23, 2020

    How are you today? Don’t give up the fight! Take rest too. I am here on the planet earth.

  • ธนาธร ถามเรื่องงบทำ IO พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ตอบ มีแต่งบสาธารณูปโภคจ่ายค่าอินเทอร์เน็ต August 22, 2020

    ธนาธร ถามเรื่องงบทำ IO พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ตอบ มีแต่งบสาธารณูปโภคจ่ายค่าอินเทอร์เน็ต

    20 ส.ค.2563 เมื่อวานนี้ ทีมสื่อพรรคก้าวไกล รายงานว่า ที่อาคารรัฐสภา ระหว่างการพิจารณางบประมาณของกองทัพบก ของ กมธ.พิจารณา ร่าง พ.ร.บ.งบประมาณปี พ.ศ.2564 พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ คงสมพงษ์ ผู้บัญชาการทหารบก ได้เข้าชี้แจงรายละเอียดด้วยตัวเอง ทั้งนี้ในการประชุม พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ ได้นำเสนอภาพรวม และหลังจากนั้นได้มีกรรมาธิการให้ความสนใจสอบถามในหลายประเด็นที่เป็นเรื่องที่ประชาชนให้ความสนใจและยังไม่ได้รับความกระจ่างจากทางกองทัพ

    พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ ได้ชี้แจงว่า ต้องขอขอบคุณกรรมาธิการ(ธนาธร) ที่ท่านได้โพสต์ในเฟสบุ๊คของท่านว่าหลังจากเหตุการณ์โคราชจะ 200 วันแล้วมีการทำอะไรไปบ้าง ทั้งนี้ผมรู้จุดตายของกองทัพบกว่าคืออะไร จึงขอชี้แจงด้วยความจริงว่าเรามีกรมสวัสดิการทหารบกมาแล้ว 70-80 ปี สาเหตุที่เกิดขึ้นที่โคราช เป็นจุดเริ่มต้น ทำให้กองทัพบกรู้สึกละอายใจกับสิ่งที่เกิดขึ้น เรามีเงินกองทุนซึ่งเป็นเงินที่ทหารทุกชั้นยศจะถูกหักเงินเป็นเงินออมเหมือนกองทุนกองทุนหนึ่ง แต่อยู่มาๆ ทหารมีเยอะขึ้น จนตอนนี้กองทุนมีเงิน 1 หมื่นล้าน ซึ่งเป็นเงินของทุกคนในกองทัพบก มีเจ้ากรมเป็นคนดูแล ซึ่งนายสิบถึงจ่าสามารถกู้เงินแบบพิเศษ ได้ 7 แสนบาท ซึ่งก็มีคนที่ทำธุรกิจข้างนอกไม่สำเร็จก็มาใช้ช่องทางนี้ในการหาประโยชน์ มีการเอาเงินกู้ไปซื้อบ้าน แล้วเอาบ้านที่ดินที่เอาเงินกู้ไปซื้อมา มาค้ำประกันกู้ต่ออีกที

    “ทั้งนี้สิ่งที่เกิดขึ้นผมไม่ได้ปกป้องลูกน้อง แต่ผมปกป้องศักดิ์ศรีและองค์กร ผมพยายามมีการเปลี่ยนแปลงแต่สิ่งที่ทำได้รับการต่อต้าน อีกทั้งสิ่งที่เกิดขึ้นคือมีคนประเมินทรัพย์สินเพื่อจะให้กู้เป็นทหารไม่เกิน 10 คนแต่ต้องประเมินทั่วประเทศ นี่คือจุดตาย ผมยอมรับว่าเป็นวัฒนธรรมที่ผิดยอมรับว่ามีการประเมินเกินจริง ก็ถูกลงโทษ เรื่องลงโทษผมลงโทษตั้งแต่เจ้ากรม มีการปลดแม้ไม่ได้แถลง มีทัวร์มาลงผม ผมไม่เคยสะทกสะท้าน แต่องค์กรต้องอยู่ ผมมีการไปทำ MOU กับธนาคารกรุงไทย ใครจะกู้ไม่ต้องมาที่ศูนย์กลาง ไปที่ธนาคารเลย แต่ยังไม่ได้ลงนามแต่มีการกำหนดเดดไลน์ว่าต้องเสร็จก่อนที่ผมจะเกษียณ ซึ่ง 200 กว่าวันที่ผ่านมาถือว่าน้อยนิดเมื่อเทียบกับปัญหาที่หมักหมมอีกทั้งกองทัพไม่ใช่บริษัท ปัญหาขององค์กรหมักหมม ต้องฝ่าฟันในองค์กร และแรงกระทบหลายๆ อย่าง” พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ กล่าว

    ทางด้านธนาธร จึงรุ่งเรืองกิจ ที่ปรึกษา กมธ.สัดส่วนของพรรคก้าวไกล ได้สอบถามถึงการตั้งงบประมาณทางด้านปฏิบิการข่าวสารหรือ IO ว่า 1.)ทราบหรือไม่ว่ากองทัพมีงบประมาณที่ใช้ไปเพื่อทำปฏิบัติการเชิงข้อมูล? ถ้าทราบทำไมตอบใน กมธ.งบประมาณปีที่แล้ว (2563) ว่าไม่ทราบ? 2.)หากไม่ทราบ หมายความว่าผู้ใต้บังคับบัญชา ปฏิบัติโดยพลการใช่หรือไม่? 3.)งบประมาณมาจากไหน? 4.)ในปัจจุบันยังมีอยู่หรือไม่?/ใช้งบประมาณอีกปีละเท่าไร?

    ธนาธรกล่าวว่า งบประมาณของกองทัพบกควรถูกใช้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ อยากเห็นกองทัพเป็นประชาธิปไตย ไม่ยุ่งเกี่ยวกับการเมืองอยู่ใต้การบังคับบัญชาจากรัฐบาล และรัฐสภาที่มาจากการเลือกตั้ง ในทางการทหารให้กองทัพ มีการปฏิรูปให้มีความทันสมัยขึ้น มีความน่าเกรงขามพอที่จะปกป้องประเทศอยู่ตลอดเวลา ในทางการปกครอง ให้กองทัพเป็นธรรม ยึดสิทธิมนุษยชน หลักความโปร่งใสตรวจสอบได้ นี่คือหลักการกว้างๆ ที่อยากเห็น ที่พูดเพราะอยากกองทัพเดินไปข้างหน้าไม่ได้พูดเพราะมีอคติ อีกทั้ง เช้าวันนี้เป็นสัญญาณที่ดีที่เห็นที่ท่านผู้บัญชาการทหารบกยอมรับว่ากองทัพมีปัญหา มีจุดอ่อน แล้วก็มีการแก้ไข แสดงว่ามีจุดร่วมเดียวกันเป็น สัญญาณดี

    “แต่ผมเรื่องที่ต้องสอบถามเพื่อให้การใช้งบประมาณเป็นไปด้วยความถูกต้องและมีประสิทธิภาพประเด็นแรกคือเรื่องปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสาร หรือ IO ผมขอไล่เรียงแบบนี้ ผู้บัญชาการทหารบกได้เข้าชี้แจงใน กมธ.ความมั่นคงแห่งรัฐกิจการชายแดนไทย ยุทธศาสตร์ชาติและการปฏิรูปประเทศ ในวันที่ 21 ตุลาคม 2562 ในการประชุมมีการถามว่ากอง ทัพมีการทำภารกิจ IO ที่มีการด้อยค่าสร้างข้อความเกลียดชังกันในสังคม มีการใช้ข่าวปลอมต่อประชาชนที่ต่อต้านการสืบทอดอำนาจหรือไม่ ท่าน ผบ.ทบ.ตอบว่าไม่มี และในปีที่แล้วการชี้แจงเรื่องงบประมาณต่อ กมธ.พิจารณางบประมาณปี 2563 ของกองทัพ ผมได้ถามท่านว่ากองทัพมีปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสารหรือไม่ ท่านไม่ได้ตอบ

    และในการอภิปรายไม่ไว้วางใจของสภาผู้แทนราษฎรที่ ส.ส.วิโรจน์ ลักขณาอดิศร ของอดีตพรรคอนาคตใหม่ที่ถูกยุบพรรคไปแล้วก็ได้มีการอภิปรายไม่ไว้วางใจนายกรัฐมนตรีในฐานะรัฐมนตรีว่าการกระทรวงกลาโหมด้วยเหตุผลว่ากองทัพบกมีปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสารหรือ IO ในการสร้างความเกลียดชังและด้อยค่าผู้เห็นต่าง ทำให้ประชาชนเกลียดชังกัน โดย ส.ส.วิโรจน์ได้แสดงให้เห็นเอกสารและหลักฐานว่ากองทัพมีปฏิบัติการ IO จริง มีการนำงบประมาณของประเทศที่เป็นเงินภาษีของประชาชนไปใช้ในปฏิบัติการเหล่านี้ บางส่วนของเอกสาร ผมขอยกตัวอย่างดังนี้ มีการให้เงินรางวัลกับคนที่สามารถทำให้มีผู้ติดตามสูงสุดในสื่อสังคมออนไลน์สูงสุดเดือนละ 2 รางวัล รางวัลละ 3,000 บาท มีการให้ประกาศนียบัตร 2 ชุดให้แก่ผู้ที่สามารถทำให้มีการติดตามสูงสุดชุดละ 1,000 บาท ในเอกสารคำสั่งมีการบอกว่าให้เพิ่มกำลังพลในหน่วยนี้อย่างต่อเนื่อง มีการให้ค่าอินเทอร์เน็ตแก่คนที่ปฏิบัติภารกิจนี้เดือนละ 1,500 บาท มีการลงทุนในห้องประชุม VTC เพื่อให้เกิดการทำวีดีโอทางไกลกันได้ (Video Conference) ดังนั้นมันชัดเจนว่ามีปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสารและมีการใช้งบประมาณที่มาจากภาษีประชาชนไปเพื่อการนี้

    เรื่องนี้สำคัญคือ ทำให้เห็นว่ากองทัพเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของความขัดแย้ง และกองทัพสร้างให้ประชาชนแบ่งฝักแบ่งฝ่ายกัน ทำให้ประชาชนเกลียดชังกันเอง ด้วยการด้อยค่ากลุ่มคนที่ต่อต้านการสืบทอดอำนาจซึ่งอาจเป็นเชื้อไฟให้เกิดความรุนแรง และใช้งบประมาณไม่ตรงกับภารกิจ ดังนั้นสิ่งที่ต้องตั้งคำถามคือท่านทราบหรือไม่ว่ากองทัพมีงบประมาณในการปฏิบัติการทางข้อมูลข่าวสารหรือ IO ถ้าทราบทำไมถึงตอบในชั้นกรรมาธิการว่าไม่ทราบ แล้วถ้าท่านไม่ทราบแสดงว่าผู้ใต้บังคับบัญชาของท่านทำภารกิจไปโดยพลการใช่หรือไม่?

    และงบประมาณเอามาจากไหน อยู่ในไหนของงบประมาณกองทัพบก? เพราะไม่มีรายละเอียดชัดเจนว่ามีอยู่ในส่วนใด เพื่อจะได้ไปดู จะได้ลงรายละเอียดไปดูกัน และหลังการอภิปรายไปแล้วยังมีอยู่หรือไม่ ใช้งบประมาณปีละเท่าใด ที่ผมถามเช่นนี้เพราะว่าประวัติศาสตร์ทุกยุคทุกสมัยสอนพวกเราว่าประวัติศาสตร์ความเกลียดชังมักนำไปสู่ความรุนแรง

    วันนี้พิสูจน์แล้วว่ารัฐไม่ได้จริงใจ ทางหนึ่งเรียกร้องการปรองดอง อีกทางหนึ่งไปไล่จับผู้เห็นต่าง ไปสร้างข่าวปลอม ไปสร้างความเกลียดชังกัน ผมอยากจะพาสังคมไปข้างหน้า ผมอยากเห็นสังคมที่ประชาชนมีสิทธิเสรีภาพ รัฐและรัฐบาลรับรองสิทธิเสรีภาพในการแสดงออกและการแสดงความคิดเห็นของประชาชน ซึ่งเป็นสิทธิเสรีภาพ ที่ได้รับรองไว้ในรัฐธรรมนูญ ผมไม่อยากเห็นว่าทหารเป็นส่วนหนึ่งในการสร้างความเกลียดชังประชาชน สร้างให้ประชาชนเกลียดชังกัน เพราะประวัติศาสตร์บอกเราว่าถ้าประชาชนเกลียดชังกัน พร้อมเผชิญหน้ากันก็พร้อมที่จะใช้ความรุนแรงต่อกัน ผมถามด้วยความหวังดีต่อประเทศ ไม่อยากให้เกิดความเกลียดชังขึ้นจากประชาชนที่สร้างโดยรัฐอีก” ธนาธร กล่าว

    ทั้งนี้ผู้บัญชาการทหารบกได้มอบหมายให้ พล.ท.ชนาวุธ บุตรกินรี เจ้ากรมยุทธการทหารบกกองทัพบก เป็นผู้ชี้แจงแทน โดยได้กล่าวว่า การปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสาร ฟังดูน่ากลัว หลายๆ คนพูดเรื่อง IO จริงๆ องค์ความรู้เรื่องข้อมูลข่าวสาร เป็นการบริหารสื่อ แต่เนื้อหาจริงคือมุ่งเพื่อประชาสัมพันธ์ โฆษณาชวนเชื่อ แล้วก็จริงๆ เปลี่ยนแนวความคิดฝ่ายตรงข้ามในสนามรบ ในภาวะปกติกองทัพบกได้นำองค์ความรู้บางส่วนโดยเฉพาะการโฆษณาและประชาสัมพันธ์มาใช้สนับสนุนการปฏิบัติภารกิจหลักของกองทัพบก คือการพิทักษ์และเทิดทูนสถาบันพระมหากษัตริย์และการป้องกันประเทศ การรักษความมั่นคงภายในโดยการใช้การโฆษณาผ่านสื่อต่างๆ เพื่อเป็นการนำเสนอและกระตุ้นการรับรู้ การเปลี่ยนพฤติกรรมต่างๆ ต่อกองทัพบก ต่อรัฐบาลซึ่งกองทัพบกเองก็ปฏิบัติเช่นเดียวกับหน่วยงานต่างๆ ไม่ได้มีการโจมตีด้อยค่าสร้างความเกลียดชังในสังคมไทยแน่นอน และกองทัพบกไม่มีการตั้งงบประมาณปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสาร ในมีเพียงแต่การตั้งงบประมาณอยู่ในการพัฒนาขีดความสามารถของกองทัพอยู่ในงบรายจ่ายอื่นๆ รายการค่าใช้จ่ายในการฝึกการทหาร ซึ่งมีงบการยุทธการ 24 ล้านบาท ในการให้ความรู้เกี่ยวกับการให้ความรู้และการฝึกในการปฏิบัติการข่าวสารเท่านั้น

    ธนาธรยังได้สอบถามเพิ่มเติมโดยกล่าวว่า จากที่ท่านผู้ชี้แจงได้กล่าวชี้แจงมามีความคลาดเคลื่อน เนื่องจากพิสูจน์จากเอกสารหลักฐานว่ามีปฏิบัติการข่าวสารจริง ทั้งนี้โดยอ้างอิงจากเอกสาร เป็นเอกสารที่ใช้ในการอภิปรายไม่ไว้วางใจไปแล้วในสภาผู้แทนราษฎร

    ตัวอย่างเช่น ในเอกสารนี้ บอกว่าการปฏิบัติการข่าวสารที่หน่วยเหนือมอบให้ในแต่ละวัน เจ้าหน้าที่โพสต์ตามความเหมาะสมไม่ต้องโพสต์เรียงลำดับหัวข้อตามลำดับภารกิจเพื่อป้องกันไม่ให้ฝ่ายตรงข้ามรู้ว่าเป็นอวตารและเป็นสแปม

    นอกจากนี้ผมคิดว่าจุดยืนทางการเมืองของผม ทุกท่านรับทราบดีผมต่อต้านการสืบทอดอำนาจ ต่อต้านการรัฐประหาร ผมเป็นภัยต่อฝ่ายที่สืบทอดอำนาจแน่นอน แต่ผมไม่ใช่ภัยของประเทศแน่นอน ผมทำด้วยความรักประเทศ แต่ในเอกสารสั่งการมีคำว่า ฝ่ายตรงข้าม มีการทำลายความน่าเชื่อถือ ด้อยค่าประชาชน การที่ผมอภิปรายเรื่องงบประมาณในเรื่องปฏิบัติการข้อมูลข่าวสารเพราะว่าเราเห็นด้วยหรือไม่ว่ากองทัพมีงบประมาณที่มาทำลายคนที่เรียกร้องประชาธิปไตย ทั้งนี้เมื่อถามกองทัพ กองทัพตอบว่าไม่มีแต่จากเอกสารหลักฐานแสดงให้เห็นว่ามี ซึ่งการที่ปฏิบัติการเช่นนี้มันขัดกับสิ่งที่ท่านผู้บัญชาการทหารบกบอกว่าต้องเป็นประชาธิปไตย

    นอกจากนี้ ในช่วงท้าย พล.อ.อภิรัชต์ ก ยังได้พูดชี้แจงในเรื่องนี้ด้วยว่า เรื่อง IO ผมให้ความสนใจมาโดยตลอดและเรื่องเอกสารที่ท่านได้รับมา การใช้คำว่าฝ่ายตรงข้าม เป็นศัตรู การใช้คำพูดแบบนี้ผมก็เห็นว่าไม่ถูก ตอนนี้ทหารคนนั้นได้ถูกย้ายไปแล้ว สำหรับทหาร ฝ่ายตรงข้ามของทหาร คืออริราชศัตรู จึงขอเรียนว่ามีการสอนว่าอะไรเป็นข่าวจริง ข่าวปลอม เพื่อสร้างความเข้าใจ อีกทั้งกำลังพลของผม ถ้าผมไม่ลงโทษถือว่าผิด จึงมีการลงโทษไป และงบประมาณที่ใช้ไม่ได้ใช้ด้านการข่าว แต่เป็นงบที่สั่งจ่ายเป็นส่วนของฝ่ายส่งกำลังบำรุง งบสาธารณูปโภค ที่จ่ายค่าอินเทอร์เน็ตมาจ่าย ซึ่งไม่ใช่ผมเห็นดีเห็นชอบหรือผมสั่งการ อีกทั้งทหารก็คือประชาชน เราจะไม่ใช้เงินภาษีอากรมาใช้ในการคุกคามประชาชน

    โดยนอกเหนือจากประเด็นปฏิบัติการ IO แล้ว ธนาธรยังติดตามการปฏิรูปกองทัพทางด้านการจัดการผลประโยชน์ด้านต่างๆ ที่ต้องโปร่งใส อย่างเช่นกรณีที่ดินนั้นทางกองทัพบกชี้แจงว่าได้ครอบครองที่ดินทั้งหมด 6 ล้านไร่ แต่คืนไปแล้ว 2 ล้านไร่ ยังเหลืออีก 4 ล้านไร่นั้น ตนอยากถามไปยังกองทัพบกว่ามีแผนการบริหารจัดการส่งคืนอย่างไรบ้าง จุดประสงค์คืออะไร และปลายทางจะออกมาเป็นอย่างไรบ้าง อยากขอเอกสารชี้แจงให้ชัดเจน

    หรือการบริหารจัดการหน่วยงานองค์กรอื่นๆ ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับกองทัพบกแต่ไม่ได้อยู่ในงบประมาณอีกจำนวนมาก ยกตัวอย่างเช่นสโมสรอาร์มี่ยูไนเต็ด ทหารบก FC หรือกองทุนสวัสดิการกองทัพบก หรืออุทยานราชภักดิ์ และการทำสัญญากองทัพบกกับดุสิตธานี ที่เราต้องการเห็นการออกมาเปิดผยรายละเอียดของการบริหารจัดการทั้งหมดว่าเป็นอย่างไรบ้าง เพื่อความโปร่งใส อย่างไรก็ตาม ทาง ผบ.ทบ. ก็ออกมายอมรับแล้วว่ามีสิ่งไม่ดีในกองทัพและพยายามแก้ไข ก็ถือเป็นเรื่องดี แต่เราต้องการความโปร่งใส

    “ถ้าทำให้ถูกต้องมีแต่คนเทิดทูนสรรเสริญ ผมเข้าใจว่าเป็นปัญหาเรื้อรังมานาน และผมไม่ได้คาดคั้นว่าเกิดอะไรขึ้น แต่ผมอยากเห็นการปรับปรุงเพื่อนำไปสู้การแก้ไข และการจะเริ่มนำไปสู่การแก้ไขได้ อย่างแรกคือการยอมรับว่ามันมีปัญหา ซึ่งท่านยอมรับไปแล้ว แต่ก้าวต่อไปจะทำได้ก็คือต้องเปิดเผยครับ เปิดเผยออกมาให้สังคมช่วยตรวจสอบ ให้สภา ให้กรรมาธิการ ให้สื่อมวลชนช่วยตรวจสอบ ยิ่งตรวจสอบยิ่งโปร่งใส ท่านมีหลังพิง ท่านบอกว่ามีคนต่อต้านท่านเยอะมาก ท่านเอาหลังพิงผมเลยครับ เอาหลังพิงกรรมาธิการเลยครับ ท่านจะได้ไปต่อสู้เปลี่ยนแปลงข้างในได้ ผมพร้อมที่จะสนับสนุนท่าน แต่ผมสนับสนุนท่านไม่ได้เพราะผมไม่เห็นข้อมูล” ธนาธรกล่าวปิดท้าย

    ทางด้านพิจารณ์ เชาว์พัฒนวงศ์ กมธ.จากสัดส่วนพรรคก้าวไกล กล่าวยกตัวอย่างเอกสารสมุดปกขาว(White Paper) ของกองทัพอากาศที่มีการชี้แจงรายละเอียดและแผนงานในอนาคตให้เห็นชัดเจน จึงอยากให้หน่วยงานกองทัพบกปฏิบัติเช่นนั้นบ้าง เพราะการเปิดเผยข้อมูลนั้นเป็นเรื่องที่ดี

    ตัวอย่างของปัญหาที่ตนเองเจอ ก็คือมีการจัดซื้อสะพานยุทธวิธี แต่มีเอกสารชี้แจงเพียงแค่ 1 หน้ากระดาษ ทั้งที่หน่วยงานอื่นๆ เช่นกรมป้องกันและบรรเทาสาธารณภัยที่มีการจัดซื้อสะพานคล้ายๆ กันนั้น มีเอกสารชี้แจงรายละเอียดถึง 10 หน้า โดยที่ กมธ.ไม่ต้องร้องขอมาเลย จึงอยากขอให้กองทัพบกมีการชี้แจงรยละเอียดให้เปิดเผยโปร่งใสมากกว่านี้ด้วย

    อีกประเด็นที่อยากฝากไว้คือในปีงบประมาณ 2562 รายได้ของกองทัพบกนั้นมาจากโรงพยาบาล สถานศึกษา ฯลฯ แต่หวังว่ารายได้จากกิจการเหล่านี้ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นสนามมวย สนามม้า สนามกอล์ฟ ฯลฯ ปรากฏเป็นเงินนอกงบประมาณในปีหน้าและปีต่อๆ ไปด้วย

    สุดท้าย พิจารณ์กล่าวว่ารายจ่ายประจำทางด้านบุคลากรของกระทรวงกลาโหมนั้นถือว่ามีสัดส่วนสูงที่สุดเมื่อเทียบกับกระทรวงอื่นๆ จึงอยากขอให้ชี้แจงเป็นเอกสารว่ามีรายละเอียดแผนการบริหารจัดการแก้ไขปัญหา ปรับลดกำลังพล ฯลฯ อันจะส่งผลให้เม็ดเงินที่ใช้จ่ายไปลดลงอย่างไรบ้าง

  • My heart is with you August 20, 2020
  • อายุที่บรรลุนิติภาวะ August 20, 2020

    อายุที่บรรลุนิติภาวะ

  • เกลียดความอยุติธรรม และ ความตอแหลของพวกที่อ้างตนว่าเป็นคนดี August 20, 2020

    เกลียดความอยุติธรรม และ ความตอแหลของพวกที่อ้างตนว่าเป็นคนดี

  • Flamenco August 19, 2020
  • ประเทศกูมี August 19, 2020
  • Apaga tu televisor August 8, 2020

    Apaga tu televisor
    Enciende tu mente
    Fúmate un libro

    Switch off your television
    Switch on your mind
    Enjoy a book

  • Giordano Bruno (Killed) August 7, 2020

    He was killed by the gouvernement because he did not accept the ideas of the Christian church.

  • Galileu Galilei (Prison) August 7, 2020

    He was locked in his house for nine years until he died because he said the sun is in the center of our system and not the earth.

  • You can do anything you want August 4, 2020

    Those four sentences mean the same:

    You can do anything you want to do and never let anyone tell you otherwise.

    You can do anything you want to do and never let anyone tell you it is not true.

    You can do anything you want to do and never let anyone tell you something else.

    You can do anything you want to do and you should never let anyone tell you it is not true.

    Love you.

  • Compass rose August 4, 2020

  • The danger of death August 4, 2020

    Why James Baldwin left the USA and went to France

  • The little match girl (Story) August 3, 2020

    It was so terribly cold. Snow was falling, and it was almost dark. Evening came on, the last evening of the year. In the cold and gloom a poor little girl, bareheaded and barefoot, was walking through the streets. Of course when she had left her house she’d had slippers on, but what good had they been? They were very big slippers, way too big for her, for they belonged to her mother. The little girl had lost them running across the road, where two carriages had rattled by terribly fast. One slipper she’d not been able to find again, and a boy had run off with the other, saying he could use it very well as a cradle some day when he had children of his own. And so the little girl walked on her naked feet, which were quite red and blue with the cold. In an old apron she carried several packages of matches, and she held a box of them in her hand. No one had bought any from her all day long, and no one had given her a cent.

    Shivering with cold and hunger, she crept along, a picture of misery, poor little girl! The snowflakes fell on her long fair hair, which hung in pretty curls over her neck. In all the windows lights were shining, and there was a wonderful smell of roast goose, for it was New Year’s eve. Yes, she thought of that!

    In a corner formed by two houses, one of which projected farther out into the street than the other, she sat down and drew up her little feet under her. She was getting colder and colder, but did not dare to go home, for she had sold no matches, nor earned a single cent, and her father would surely beat her. Besides, it was cold at home, for they had nothing over them but a roof through which the wind whistled even though the biggest cracks had been stuffed with straw and rags.

    Her hands were almost dead with cold. Oh, how much one little match might warm her! If she could only take one from the box and rub it against the wall and warm her hands. She drew one out. R-r-ratch! How it sputtered and burned! It made a warm, bright flame, like a little candle, as she held her hands over it; but it gave a strange light! It really seemed to the little girl as if she were sitting before a great iron stove with shining brass knobs and a brass cover. How wonderfully the fire burned! How comfortable it was! The youngster stretched out her feet to warm them too; then the little flame went out, the stove vanished, and she had only the remains of the burnt match in her hand.

    She struck another match against the wall. It burned brightly, and when the light fell upon the wall it became transparent like a thin veil, and she could see through it into a room. On the table a snow-white cloth was spread, and on it stood a shining dinner service. The roast goose steamed gloriously, stuffed with apples and prunes. And what was still better, the goose jumped down from the dish and waddled along the floor with a knife and fork in its breast, right over to the little girl. Then the match went out, and she could see only the thick, cold wall. She lighted another match. Then she was sitting under the most beautiful Christmas tree. It was much larger and much more beautiful than the one she had seen last Christmas through the glass door at the rich merchant’s home. Thousands of candles burned on the green branches, and colored pictures like those in the printshops looked down at her. The little girl reached both her hands toward them. Then the match went out. But the Christmas lights mounted higher. She saw them now as bright stars in the sky. One of them fell down, forming a long line of fire.

    “Now someone is dying,” thought the little girl, for her old grandmother, the only person who had loved her, and who was now dead, had told her that when a star fell down a soul went up to God.

    She rubbed another match against the wall. It became bright again, and in the glow the old grandmother stood clear and shining, kind and lovely.

    “Grandmother!” cried the child. “Oh, take me with you! I know you will disappear when the match is burned out. You will vanish like the warm stove, the wonderful roast goose and the beautiful big Christmas tree!”

    And she quickly struck the whole bundle of matches, for she wished to keep her grandmother with her. And the matches burned with such a glow that it became brighter than daylight. Grandmother had never been so grand and beautiful. She took the little girl in her arms, and both of them flew in brightness and joy above the earth, very, very high, and up there was neither cold, nor hunger, nor fear-they were with God.

    But in the corner, leaning against the wall, sat the little girl with red cheeks and smiling mouth, frozen to death on the last evening of the old year. The New Year’s sun rose upon a little pathetic figure. The child sat there, stiff and cold, holding the matches, of which one bundle was almost burned.

    “She wanted to warm herself,” the people said. No one imagined what beautiful things she had seen, and how happily she had gone with her old grandmother into the bright New Year.

July 2020

  • Gayatri Mantra July 28, 2020

    Om Bhur Bhuvah Swaha
    Tat Savitur Varenyam
    Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi
    Dhiyo Yonah Prachodayat

  • Govinda Jaya Jaya July 28, 2020

    Govinda Jaya Jaya
    Gopala Jaya Jaya
    Radha Ramana Hari
    Govinda Jaya Jaya

  • Today with you July 28, 2020
  • 01 July 28, 2020

     

    The premier destination for modern art in Northern Sweden. Open from 10 AM to 6 PM every day during the summer months.

    Works and Days

    August 1 — December 1

    Theatre of Operations

    October 1 — December 1

    The Life I Deserve

    August 1 — December 1

    From Signac to Matisse

    October 1 — December 1

    “Cyborgs, as the philosopher Donna Haraway established, are not reverent. They do not remember the cosmos.”

    With seven floors of striking architecture, UMoMA shows exhibitions of international contemporary art, sometimes along with art historical retrospectives. Existential, political and philosophical issues are intrinsic to our programme. As visitor you are invited to guided tours artist talks, lectures, film screenings and other events with free admission

    The exhibitions are produced by UMoMA in collaboration with artists and museums around the world and they often attract international attention. UMoMA has received a Special Commendation from the European Museum of the Year, and was among the top candidates for the Swedish Museum of the Year Award as well as for the Council of Europe Museum Prize.

     

    Become a Member and Get Exclusive Offers!

    Members get access to exclusive exhibits and sales. Our memberships cost $99.99 and are billed annually.

  • Eternal July 22, 2020

  • 21.07.2020 July 21, 2020
  • All is welcome here (Music) July 20, 2020

    Broken hearts and broken wings
    Bring it all and everything
    Bring the song you fear to sing
    All is welcome here

    Even if you broke your vow
    A thousand times
    Come anyhow
    We’re stepping into the power of now
    And all is welcome here

    See the father and the son
    Reunited here they come
    Dancing to the sacred drum
    They know they’re welcome here

    I see the shaman
    And the mighty Priest
    See the beauty and the beast
    Singing I have been released
    And I am welcome here

    I stood alone at the gateless gate
    Too drunk on love to hesitate
    To the winds I cast my fate
    And the remnants of my fear

    I took a deep breath and I leapt
    And I awoke as if I’d never slept
    Tears of gratitude I wept
    I was welcome here

  • Hello world! July 20, 2020

    Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start writing!

  • Not in our name July 19, 2020

    The torture of Julian Assange
    The short movie only in high quality

    The torture of Julian Assange
    The short movie in low quality with the talk afterward.

    14 July 2020 Official launch of a film about the state torture of Assange written, produced and directed by John Furse “Not In Our Name”, followed by a discussion.

    Event: [YouTube]
    Speakers:
    @rebecca_vincent (Moderator)
    @NilsMelzer (Special Rapporteur on Torture)
    @john_furse (Film maker)

    [00:00] Intro Rebecca Vincent
    [00:31] Short film “Not In Our Name”
    [23:43] Rebecca Vincent
    [24:05] John Furse – Why make the film? [Republik]
    [26:40] Nils Melzer – Why did he get involved in the Assange situation?

    Speaks about discovering, when he looked into the case, that he had been deceived by the propaganda.

    “If YOU think that Julian Assange is a hacker and a narcissist and a rapist, you are not to blame – because you have been deceived. If you think that you have NOT been deceived, it means that the deception is working. … It’s normal that you think you are not being deceived – that is the whole point of deception.”
    [But in this case] you only have to scratch the surface a little bit and immediately you will see the contradictions. And that’s what I did in March 2019. …”
    “Most of the ‘official’ world is STILL being deceived, and they are not aware of it.”

    [31:31] Nils Melzer – Public reaction to his initial allegations that Assange had been and still was being tortured.
    “Quite shocked …” “The authorities were simply not receptive, They didn’t want to hear the truth ….” [So he stepped into the public limelight.]

    [32:38] Rebecca Vincent: “… we found in our work at RSF – that the public opinion really enables govts to continue their behaviours, and that many people in the UK and US reject the idea that this could be happening to somebody – that what we know to be true IS true, that he’s been targeted for political reasons ..

    [33:03] Nils Melzer: Reactions of States since?
    “Theÿ rejected everything …”
    He has just now submitted a report to the UN about this kind of psych-social pattern at the level of state authorities, media and ordinary citizens about this pattern of rejection of facts and denial.

    [37:14] John Furse: What can we do now as individuals, journalists etc to further the conversation?

    [39:46] John Furse: People’s understanding of how Assange has been treated. Do people understand what psychological torture is?

    [41:00] Nils Melzer: Govt and public understandings of psychological toture and its seriousness.
    “Torture, essentially, is when you instrumentalise the infliction of pain and suffering to achieve a purpose. … These purposes are always mental. The seesential nature of torture is always to affect and break a person’s mind. …
    The actual target of ANY act of torture is the mind. It’s ALWAYS psychological.”
    [So the choice of physical or psychological means is not as important as we normally think.]
    And the media treatment is such that “We’re always discussing what Julian Assange did, but this case is not about him. It’s about the states [and what THEY did – War Crimes]. It has always been about them.”
    He discusses Collateral Murder, and how no-one has been held accountable.
    “We’re discussing cats and skateboards … but we are not discussing things which have been documented as War Crimes.”

    [46:19] Q & A

    [45:27] Q: The case against Assange in the US? What will happen if he is deported there? Impact of superseding indictment.

    Nils Melzer: “The purpose of the superseding indictment is really to feed the narrative that he is ‘’not a journalist” …”
    Advises looking at the timeline of the elements in the indictment.
    Then discusses the way the US attempts to manipulate public opinion in the US.and the flaws in the US ‘justice’ system. “There’s no chance he could have a fair trial there.” “The only chance is to inform the public …”

    [54:35] Q: RSF position – RSF agrees. Discusses impact on press freedom and freedom of speech.

    [56:27] Nils Melzer: More on the nature of tourture. “The real purpose of torture, most of the time, is INTIMIDATION.And it is not necessarily intimidation of the victim. It’s intimidation of everybody else. That’s why people are tortured in public places [and] women raped in the village square in armed conflicts [and] people are being executed publicly…”
    “That is what is happening to Julian Assange. It’s not about punishing him [or] interrogating him and finding the truth. It’s about intimidating all other journalists and publishers and making sure that no-one does what he has done – because that’s what states are afraid of.”
    “And this purpose has already been achieved ….”
    “So this fight is really to re-establish press freedom, rather than just protecting it.”

    [59:23] Rebecca Vincent: “So that brings us back to the need to change public opinion.”
    Q: The role of the media – how to get more coverage, and what ordinary people can do.
    John Furse talks about the role of Big Money in all this, and the way te Assange case fits with the need to resume democracy.

    [1:01:14] Q: Re Nils Melzer’s report, and the role of the UN. Has he received any threats?
    He has been told there will be a political price to pay for speaking out, but being “grudgingly tolerated” for now. Discusses the way this case threatens the concept of the UN. Rapporteurs are independent, but up against a globalised system.
    “We have been privatising public service for 40 years, and now we have almost been privatising governments. We have privatised prisons, armies, police …So no wonder govts think they are private [too]..”
    “So we have to remind govts that they are NOT private …They are serving us, the people – so we, the people, are the beginning of everything..”

    [1:06:04] Rebecca Vincent: “…it is increasingly the special mandate holders [Independent Rapporteurs] that are getting at the core issues, the most crucial cases, in a way that other institutions are failing …”

    [1:06:37] Q: John Furse: What will he do with the film next?
    “People need to get it out there.” “A major problem is to move the soft middle.”

    [1:10:51] END

  • The father of Julian Assange July 18, 2020

    The father of Julian Assange try to help is son, but they keep torturing his son.

  • Jiddu Krishnamurti July 18, 2020
  • Invictus (Poem) July 18, 2020

    Out of the night that covers me
    Black as the pit from pole to pole,
    I thank whatever gods may be
    For my unconquerable soul.

    In the fell clutch of circumstance,
    I have not winced nor cried aloud.
    Under the bludgeonings of chance
    My head is bloody, but unbowed.

    Beyond this place of wrath and tears
    Looms but the Horror of the shade,
    And yet the menace of the years
    Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.

    It matters not how strait the gate,
    How charged with punishments the scroll,
    I am the master of my fate:
    I am the captain of my soul.

    Poem written in 1875 by William Ernest Henley (1849–1903).

  • My grandmother July 14, 2020

    My grandmother

    My grandmother was full of light, she welcome me always, she always shared everything with me, we love each other, without words. She never lied, never, I felt safe with her, people like her are hard to find, only my father was like her. He also shared everything, everything, he never lied. My grandmother and my father would do everything for me, I would do everything for them, naturally, just like a flow, with joy.

    When my grandmother passed away, they use the word “die”, I do not agree because this is not what I experienced. When she passed away, they did not let me stay with her, they send me away, they did not respect my life, my heart. I wanted to stay near her body, for as long as I wanted, they violently send me away. Rarely people have respected me, rarely people have let me live my life, rarely. They all tells me “do that”, “do that”, “don’t do that”. My life is therefore a hell, because they have no feeling, no heart. My father was very kind, they did not let me be with him. I was very sad.

  • Eating chicken anyone? July 13, 2020
  • Mickey 3D (Music) July 13, 2020
  • Kaleidoscope July 11, 2020
  • Karunesh (Music) July 10, 2020

    Oh my Lord, have mercy on your people.

  • Robert F. Kennedy Jr. July 10, 2020

    Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. (born January 17, 1954) is an American environmental lawyer and activist, author, and anti-vaccinationist. Kennedy is a son of Robert F. Kennedy and nephew of former USA president John F. Kennedy.
    He has one child who is very unwell after getting a vaccine shot. Medicine and vaccination has possibly made millions and millions of people very sick. Take care of yourself, think, do no believe, ask questions. If dangerous, ask questions inside yourself, when you are tired, take rest. I waiting for you. They were stronger than me.
    See the video of Robert F. Kennedy Jr. powerful speech (short video)
    See the video of Robert F. Kennedy Jr. powerful speech (long video)

  • Do not grow my child July 9, 2020

    Do not grow my child,
    never grow,
    the great ones to the world,
    they do a lot of harm.

    The man ambitions,
    every day more,
    And loses the way,
    for wanting to fly.
    Fly low,
    because below
    is the truth.
    This is something
    that men
    never learn

    Facundo Cabral

  • Wonderful colors July 9, 2020
  • No crezca mi niño July 6, 2020

    No crezca mi niño,
    no crezca jamás,
    los grandes al mundo,
    le hacen mucho mal.

    El hombre ambiciona,
    cada día más,
    Y pierde el camino,
    por querer volar…
    Vuele bajo,
    porque abajo,
    está la verdad.
    Esto es algo,
    que los hombres,
    no aprenden jamás.

    Facundo Cabral
    Argentina 1937 / Guatemala 2011

  • Facundo Cabral (Music) July 6, 2020

    One day I want to translate this song for you.

    Si yo Digo lo que Digo

    De tanto vagar por ahí
    no se por dónde empecé
    pero de cualquier manera
    vengo de ‘onde viene usted.

    De la tierra que en silencio,
    con el agua y con el fuego
    provoca toda la vida,
    sus alegrías, sus miedos.

    Entonces vengo del fruto
    centro mismo del incendio
    a contar lo que he aprendido
    de la nuez, la flor, el siervo;
    y aquello que no me acuerdo.

    Le gustaba a mi caballo
    la tierra que abandoné,
    lo dejé con sus amores
    paisano, me fuí de a pie,

    yo no camino derecho,
    siempre camino torcido;
    el que camina derecho
    conoce un solo camino.

    Tengo solo una cabeza,
    un sombrero basta y sobra
    pa’ que me sirven dos camas
    si yo duermo en una sola.

    Yo soy el gallo que canta
    anunciando el nuevo día,
    yo soy el viento del sur
    que nunca llegó a bahía.

    La ciudad no me convence
    y la paso de costado,
    la escalera de cemento
    solamente hace esclavos.

    La mentira no me gusta
    y por eso nunca miento,
    simplemente cuando canto
    sueño y al soñar invento.

    Si yo digo lo que digo
    no es porque me sobre ciencia,
    yo no soy el que se mueve
    es el mundo que da vueltas.

    He visto las maravillas
    que son posibles de ver,
    es decir, todas las cosas,
    las imposibles también.

    Vi a las diosas que soplaban
    pa’ que el mundo diera vueltas,
    y vi que para ir al cielo
    son infinitas las puertas.

    Desde el gusano a la hoja
    anduve la vieja planta,
    y supe donde la mar
    olvida el sol y no canta.

    Espejo fui del espejo
    pa’ que comprenda la nada
    y conocí las miserias
    en la bandeja de plata.

    Alguna vez por adentro
    me caminó lo de afuera,
    mi Dios, yo fui el universo
    y no supe lo que era.

    Fui grande y después pequeño
    pa’ ver que no hay diferencia
    y me fui lejos del pago
    pa’ conocer la querencia.

    Yo no soy lo que parezco
    sino lo que mi alma sueña,
    y si me caigo en los pozos
    es por mirar las estrellas.

    Yo sueño panes enteros
    en un mundo de migajas
    respiro fuerte y no muero
    porque no me da la gana.

    Yo soy de los que caminan,
    yo no soy de los que marchan,
    nunca voy con los que lloran,
    y siempre con los que cantan.

    Soy el esclavo mas libre
    esclavo de lo que amo,
    la libertad y la belleza
    saben bien de quienes hablo.

    No pierda tiempo paisano
    esperando por el tren,
    que pa’ndar la vida, solo
    se necesitan los pies.

    Caminante, caminante,
    no confundas tu destino
    que una cosa es la tierra
    y otra cosa es el camino.

    Porque el tiempo le sobraba
    pa’ lo poco que sabía,
    el hombre inventó la guerra
    por no conocer la vida.

    El saber es necesario
    como el árbol pa’ la sombra,
    en manos del que no sabe
    la manzana es una bomba.

    Del cañón hay que zafarse
    porque nunca dice nada,
    la violencia trae violencia
    pero nunca la esperanza.

    No hay historia de segundos,
    pero menos de terceros,
    la cuenta comienza en uno
    y termina con el cero.

    Yo no soy quien te aconseja,
    dale las gracias al tiempo,
    que del tiempo viene todo,
    todito lo que te cuento.

  • Many cultures July 6, 2020

    You are not traveling now, there are many cultures, here is one.

  • Jail = Cage July 6, 2020
  • Hmong July 5, 2020

  • Ai Weiwei (Artist) July 1, 2020
  • Teddy is lost in Sao Paulo July 1, 2020

June 2020

  • Juan Branco (BlogSpot) June 27, 2020
  • Born June 15, 2020
  • For you June 15, 2020

    Skaewmong, 1 month ago (June 15, 2020 @ 20:10:20)

    Sao Paulo, 15 June 2020

    (Sao Paulo, 14 June 2020)

  • Volti Restaurant June 13, 2020

    Very crisp pizzas
    On day we will eat again together
    Stay alive and healthy

  • Prisoner June 12, 2020

    I am here waiting

  • Uprising (Muse) June 10, 2020

    How is mini man today ?

    I just discovered this song today, it says :

    They will not control us
    We will be victorious
    They will not force us
    They will not degrade us
    We will be victorious

    Paranoia is in bloom
    The PR transmissions will resume
    They’ll try to push drugs that keep us all dumbed down
    And hope that we will never see the truth around
    (So come on)

    Another promise, another seed
    Another packaged lie to keep us trapped in greed
    And all the green belts wrapped around our minds
    And endless red tape to keep the truth confined
    (So come on)

    They will not force us
    They will stop degrading us
    They will not control us
    We will be victorious
    (So come on)

    Interchanging mind control
    Come let the revolution take its toll
    If you could flick the switch and open your third eye
    You’d see that we should never be afraid to die
    (So come on)

    Rise up and take the power back
    It’s time the fat cats had a heart attack
    You know that their time’s coming to an end
    We have to unify and watch our flag ascend
    (So come on)

    They will not force us
    They will stop degrading us
    They will not control us
    We will be victorious
    (So come on)

    Hey, hey, hey, hey
    Hey, hey, hey, hey

    They will not force us
    They will stop degrading us
    They will not control us
    We will be victorious
    (So come on)

  • To die in peace June 8, 2020

    To die in peace

  • Guitar June 6, 2020

    Yamaha JR1 or Yamaha JR2 ?

  • Moov June 5, 2020

    Very sorry mini man.


  • Schumann Resonance 7.83 Hz June 4, 2020

May 2020

  • Videos of the day May 31, 2020
  • Image of the day May 31, 2020

  • Photo of the day May 31, 2020

  • Ajgeet Kaur (Music) May 29, 2020
  • Deuter (Music) May 29, 2020

    Sometimes I want to relax, please do the same if you can, take care if you can, I will wait for you. I am here for you.

  • Planet of the Humans (Documentary) May 19, 2020
  • Bad guy May 18, 2020
  • Vaccin May 17, 2020


  • Borneo (Documentary) May 17, 2020
  • Melina Mercouri (Singer) May 17, 2020

    This is me

  • Bangkok (Documentary) May 17, 2020
  • Teddy May 14, 2020
  • Call off the Search (Teaching) May 12, 2020

    Dear,

    He was the teacher of many of my friends. I met him a few times. His name is Poonja or Poonjaji.

    Take good care of yourself today.
    We should meet in the future.

  • Sophie Hunger (Music) May 11, 2020

    To you my love

  • MSG ผงชูรส May 6, 2020


    Be smart my boy, do not eat MSG.
    With love, Papa

  • Selk’nam May 3, 2020



    The Selk’nam, also known as the Onawo or Ona people, are an indigenous people in the Patagonian region of southern Argentina and Chile, including the Tierra del Fuego islands. They were one of the last native groups in South America to be encountered by migrant ethnic Europeans, mainly British in the late 19th century. In the mid-19th century, there were about 4000 Selk’nam; by 1919 there were 297, and by 1930 just over 100.
    The Selk’nam genocide was the genocide of the Selk’nam people, one of three indigenous tribes populating the Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. The genocide spanned a period of between ten and fifteen years. The Selk’nam, which had an estimated population of 4,000 people, saw their numbers reduced to 500.








    This photograph was taken in the Tierra del Fuego during 1919 by Martin Gusinde (1886-1969), a Silesian missionary and anthropologist. It shows the shaman Akukiol Halimink with his wife and their children. They belonged to the Selk’nam (Ona) tribe. That was one of the ethnic groups more used to the cold weather. They went barefoot, often also in the snow. They wore only animal furs that they took off for hunting and other activities. They did not have weaving technology.



    Large farming companies paid £1 for each dead Selk’nam. The £1 was redeemed against a pair of hands, a pair of ears or, later, a head.


    With the permission of the Chilean government, in 1889, the businessman Maurice Maitre took eleven Selk’nam to Paris by force to exhibit them in the “human zoos” of the World’s Fair. They were measured, weighed, photographed and were expected to perform every day. A lot of them died because they did not receive the best of care; some did not even make it to Europe.
    In 1889, Belgian Maurice Maitre kidnapped a family of Selk’nam people, whom he took in chains to be exhibited in Europe like animals. Of the 11, two died on the trip. In Paris, they were presented behind bars as alleged cannibals; every afternoon the public threw raw horse meat at them. They were kept dirty, so that they had the appearance of savages. Given the inhumane conditions of the exhibition, the Missionary Society began demanding the family’s release. So Maitre took them to Brussels, where they were imprisoned and then deported to England. From there the family embarked for Tierra del Fuego. Of the 11, six made it home according to Chilean authorities.”

  • Thammasat (Music) May 3, 2020

    University of Moral and Political Sciences (Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยวิชาธรรมศาสตร์และการเมือง; RTGS: Mahawitthayalai Wicha Thammasat Lae Kanmueang)

April 2020

  • The Eye above the Well (Documentary) April 30, 2020
  • Phantom India (Documentary) April 29, 2020

    A wonderful set of seven films of India like I knew it.

    1 “The Impossible Camera” 1969
    2 “Things Seen in Madras” 1969
    3 “The Indians and the Sacred” 1969
    4 “Dreams and Reality” 1969
    5 “A Look at the Castes” 1969
    6 “On the Fringes of Indian Society” 1969
    7 ‘Bombay: The Future India” 1969

  • Bella Ciao (Music) April 26, 2020
  • Reunited April 26, 2020
  • A picture is worth a thousand words April 17, 2020

    Robert McDaniels, a black men, was tortured and lynched on April 13, 1937, in Duck Hill, Mississippi, USA.

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Philosopher) April 11, 2020

    The Reveries of the Solitary Walker
    (an anonymous translation to English, published in 1796)

    by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    First Walk
    BEHOLD me, then, as if alone upon the earth, having neither brother, relative, friend, or society, but my own thoughts; the most social and affectionate of men, proscribed, as it were, by unanimous consent. They have sought in the refinement of their hatred, what would be the most cruel torment to my susceptible soul, and have rent asunder every bond which attached me to them. I should have loved mankind in spite of themselves, and it was only by throwing off humanity that they could avoid my affection. At length, then, behold them strangers, unknown, as indifferent to me as they desired to be; but thus detached from mankind, and everything that relates to them, what am I? This remains to be sought. Unhappily, the search must be preceded by casting a glance on my own situation, since I must necessarily pass through this examination, in order to judge between them and myself.

    It is now above fifteen years since I have been in this strange situation, which yet appears to me like a dream; ever imagining, that disturbed by indigestion, I sleep uneasily, but shall soon awake, freed from my troubles, and surrounded by my friends. Yes, surely, I have glided unconsciously from nightly watchings into profound sleep, or rather from life to death; dragged, I know not how, from the natural order of things, I find myself precipitated into an incomprehensible chaos, where I can distinguish nothing, and the more I consider my present situation, the less I seem to comprehend it.

    How could I possibly foresee the destiny that awaited me? Or, how can I even now, though betrayed into this state, form any adequate idea of it? Could I, if in my right senses, suppose that one day, the man I was, and yet remain, should be taken, without any kind of doubt, for a monster, a poisoner, an assassin, the horror of the human race, the sport of the rabble, my only salutation to be spit upon, and that a whole generation would unanimously amuse themselves in burying me alive? When this strange revolution first happened, taken by unawares, I was overwhelmed with astonishment; my agitation, my indignation, plunged me into a delirium, which ten years have scarcely been able to calm: during this interval, falling from error to error, from fault to fault, and folly to folly, I have, by my imprudence, furnished the contrivers of my fate with instruments, which they have artfully employed to fix it without resource.

    For a long time, my struggles were as violent as unavailing, employed without art, dissimulation, or prudence: warm, open, impatient, and frank in my disposition, every endeavour to disengage myself did but entangle me the more, and give my enemies incessant advantages, which they took care to improve: at length, finding all my efforts useless, all my uneasiness vain, I adopted the only means that remained; which was, to submit without murmuring to my fate; and found an indemnification for my misfortunes, by the tranquillity, which this resignation procured me, and which could not be allied with the continual struggle of a painful and ineffectual resistance.

    Another circumstance has contributed to this tranquillity: in the eagerness of their malice, my persecutors had omitted one thing highly necessary to the accomplishment of their designs, this was, to portion out the effects of their malice in such a manner that they might maintain and renew my sorrows by successive oppressions. Had they possessed the skill to have left me some beam of hope, they might have held me by that, and continued me their play-thing by false lures, till at length they had totally overwhelmed me by successive torments, arising from deceived expectation; but they exhausted all their inventions at once, and in stripping me of every hope, deprived themselves of every resource. The defamation, oppression, scandal, and derision with which they have loaded me, are no more capable of augmentation than they are of being palliated, and can no more increase my misfortunes, than I can remove them; they have been so precipitate in bringing my misery to the utmost pitch, that all the powers on earth, aided by all the machinations of hell, can add nothing to it; even bodily pains, instead of augmenting my calamities, serve only to divert them, and while they extort groans, prevent shudderings; the pangs of my body making me less sensible to those of my soul.

    What then have I to fear from mankind, since my situation cannot be rendered worse? No more can they alarm me; inquietude and fear are evils from which they have delivered me forever; which is no insignificant consolation. Present evils make little impression on me; when I encounter them, I readily take my measures; but it is different with those that keep me in doubt; alarmed imagination combines, turns, extends, and augments the idea of them, tormenting me an hundred times more than their reality can do, the threat being ever more terrible than the stroke. When misfortunes actually arrive, being stripped of every imaginary horror, and reduced to their real weight, I always think them much less than I had feared, and find relief even in the midst of my sufferings. In this state, freed from fear, and delivered from suspense and hope, even custom alone will suffice to render that situation daily more supportable, which no calamities can render worse. By degrees, the sensation of unhappiness becomes less acute, when there remains no possibility of giving it re-animation; and this service I have received from my persecutors, for by showering down at once the whole violence of their animosity, they have lost all authority over me, and hereafter I can securely laugh at their malice.

    For about two months since, a complete calm has been re-established in my heart. I had long been a stranger to fear; but I continued to encourage hope; this sentiment sometimes flattered, sometimes frustrated, was a medium, through which a thousand different passions found means to agitate me: an event, as melancholy as it was unforeseen, has at length banished from my heart every beam of hope, and made me consider my worldly destiny as irrevocably fixed; since then, I have resigned myself without reserve, and have regained my tranquillity. When I became acquainted with the extent of the plot formed against me, I totally gave tip the idea of regaining, during life, the good opinion of the public; and even was this acquisition possible, the confidence could not be reciprocal, and consequently must be useless. Should mankind return to me it would be vain, I am no longer to be found; they have inspired me with such disgust, that their commerce would not only be insipid, but painful; and I am an hundred times happier in my solitude, than I could possibly be in their company. They have torn from my heart all the sweets of society, which at my age can never spring up again; ’tis too late!—henceforward let them do me good or harm it is perfectly indifferent, my contemporaries can never give me a moment of concern.

    I once looked forward to the future, and hoped for a better generation, who, examining with care and impartiality the opinion formed by the present, and thence forming a judgment between us, would easily unravel the artifice of those who gave rise to it, and view me as I really am. This hope suggested the idea of writing my Dialogues, with a thousand useless expedients to make them reach posterity, and though distant, kept my mind in the same agitation as when I endeavoured to find a mind actuated by principles of justice in the present age, still rendering me the sport of my contemporaries. I have mentioned in my Dialogues, on what this expectation was founded; it was a mistake, and I have happily discovered my error time enough to enjoy before my last hour an interval of perfect tranquillity. This interval began from the time I have already mentioned, and I have reason to believe will never more be interrupted.

    Few days pass, without my being confirmed by new reflections, how much I erred in flattering myself that I should ever recover the good opinion of the public, even in a future age; considering it is conducted by guides who are perpetually renewed in those very societies that hold me in such implacable aversion. Particulars die, but collective bodies never can; the same passions are perpetuated, and their ardent hatred, immortal as the demon that inspires it, has ever the same activity. Though all my particular enemies should be no more, Physicians and Oratorians will still exist, and should I have no other persecutors, those two description of people, I may be assured, will show no more savour to my memory, than they have done to my person. Perhaps in the course of time, the Physicians whom I have really offended, might be appeased; but the Oratorians, whom I loved, esteemed, in whom I placed the utmost confidence, and whom I never offended, the Oratorians,* church-men, and half-monks, will be forever implacable, their own iniquity being my crime, which self-love can never par on; and the public, whose animosity they will continually increase and re-animate, will no more be appeased than themselves.

    [* An order of priests, who take their name from the orator of St. Jerome, at Rome.]

    My fate, therefore, is absolutely fixed; no circumstance can bring me either good or evil; nothing remains for me either to hope or fear in this world; yet, though plunged into this fearful abyss, behold me tranquil!—poor, unfortunate, and infirm; but completely beyond the reach of suffering.

    Every future occurrence will be immaterial to me; I have in the world neither relative, friend, or brother; I am on the earth, as if I had fallen into some unknown planet; if I contemplate anything around me, it is only distressing, heart rending objects; everything I cast my eyes on, conveys some new subject either of indignation or affliction; I will endeavour, henceforward, to banish from my mind all painful ideas, which unavailingly distress me. Alone for the rest of my life, I must only look for consolation, hope, or peace, in my own breast; and neither ought, or will, henceforward, think of anything but myself. It is in this state, that I return to the continuation of that severe and just examination which I formerly called my Confessions; I consecrate my latter days to the study of myself; and to the preparation of that account, which I must shortly render up of my actions. I resign my thoughts entirely to the pleasure of conversing with my own soul; that being the only consolation that man cannot deprive me of. If by dint of reflection on my internal propensities, I can, attain to putting them in better order, and correcting the evil that remains in me, their meditations will not be utterly useless; and though I am accounted worthless on earth, shall not cast away my latter days. The leisure of my daily walks has frequently been filled with charming contemplations, which I regret having forgot; but will write down those that occur in future; then, every time I read them over, I shall forget my misfortunes, disgraces, and persecutors, on recollecting, and contemplating, the integrity of my own heart.

    These sheets will only contain a concise journals of my reveries, treating principally of myself, because a solitary must be very much employed with his own person, but if during my walk other ideas pass through my mind, they shall equally find place. I will relate my thoughts, precisely as they strike me, and with as little connection as the ideas of yesterday have with those of today, since from these will result a clearer knowledge of my temper, with the complexion and tendency of those thoughts and sentiments which are my daily food, in the singular situation I am thrown into, than could otherwise be obtained. These sheets, should, therefore be looked on as an appendix to my Confessions; but I no longer give them that name, since I have more anything to say that suits the appellation my heart is purified by repeated strokes of adversity and I can hardly find, though I search with the utmost care, any remains of reprehensible inclinations. What should I confess then, when all terrestrial affections are erased? I have as little to praise as blame, for henceforward I am nothing among mankind; nor can I ever be otherwise, possessing no actual relation or real society’; no longer having it in my power to attempt any good, which would not turn to evil, nor to act without injuring either others or myself, thus obstinacy has become my greatest duty, and I maintain it to the utmost of my power. But in this inactive state of body my soul is still alive, producing thoughts and sentiments; its moral and internal faculties, appear to have augmented by the death of every earthly and temporal concern; my body is only an embarrassment, an obstacle, which I already endeavour to disengage myself from.

    A situation so singular, certainly deserves to be both examined and described; it is to this examination I consecrate my future days, and in order to accomplish it with success, I should proceed with circumspection and methods but I am incapable of such labour, nay it would even divert me from my purpose, which is to render an account to myself of the successive modifications of my soul. In some measure, I perform the operation on myself, which physicians do on the air, in order to ascertain the daily condition of it; applying (if I may use the expression) the barometer to my soul, not doubting but these experiments, well directed, and constantly repeated, will procure information equally to be depended on; but I do not equally extend my views, content with keeping a register of operations, without seeking to reduce them into a system. I undertake the same enterprise Montaigne did, but for a direct contrary purpose; he wrote his Essays only for others, I my Reveries entirely for myself. If in my more advanced age, and on the verge of dissolution, I remain (according to my present wish) in the same disposition, I shall recollect, on reading these Reveries, the pleasure I experienced on writing them; and thus, recalling past time, shall redouble my existence. Even in spite of mankind, I shall yet enjoy the charms of society, and, when decrepit with age, hold converse with myself, as I now should with a friend younger than I am.

    I wrote the first of my Confessions, and my Dialogues, in continual care; being anxious to preserve them from the rapacious hands of my enemies, and transmit them, if possible, to other generations, This uneasiness no longer torments me, I know what I write will be useless, and a desire to be better known by mankind is extinguished in my heart, where nothing remains but profound indifference on the fate of my real writings and monuments of my innocence, which, perhaps, are by this time totally annihilated. Let them watch all my motions, and disquiet themselves about these sheets; let them seize, suppress, and defame them, it is henceforward absolutely equal to me; I will neither conceal, or endeavour to make them public; if they are taken from me while I live, they cannot deprive me of the pleasure of having wrote them, the remembrance of their contents, or the solitary meditations of which they are the transcript, and whose source can only be exhausted with my being.

    If, at the beginning of my calamities, I had but known how to refrain from struggling with my fate; could I have adopted the method I do at present; all the efforts of man, all their tremendous contrivances, would have been ineffectual; their plots would no more have destroyed my tranquillity, than the success of them can henceforward. Let them enjoy my disgrace, they cannot debar me from the enjoyment of my innocence; and I shall conclude my days in peace, spite of all their machinations.

    Second Walk
    HAVING resolved to describe the habitual state of my soul, in the most unaccountable situation that ever mortal experienced, I can find no manner so simple and effectual, to execute this purpose, as to keep a faithful register of my solitary walks, and the reveries which accompany them; when I find my mind entirely free, and suffer my ideas to follow their bent, without resistance or control These hours of solitude and meditation are the only ones in the day when I am entirely myself, and for myself, without diversion, or obstacle; and when I can truly say, I am what nature designed me.

    I was soon convinced that I had begun this project too late; my imagination, being already less lively, is not, as formerly, enraptured at the contemplation, temptation of those objects which animate it. I am less intoxicated with the delirium of my reveries, there is more of remembrance than creation in their productions; a cold languishment enervates all my facilities; the animal spirits extinguish by degrees; my soul creeps painfully from its feeble tenement, and were I deprived of the hope of that state to which my soul aspires, because I feel a right to the expectation of it, I should no longer exist but in remembrance. Thus, if I would contemplate myself before my decline, I must at least look back some years, to the time, when losing all hope below, and finding no support for my heart on earth, I accustomed myself, by little and littler to nourish it with its own substance, and to seek, support entirely within myself.

    This resource, which I adopted too late, became so fruitful, that it soon recompensed me for every loss. The habit of retiring within myself, made me soon lose the feeling, and almost the remembrance of my sorrows; thus I learned, by my own experience that the source of true happiness is in ourselves, and that it is beyond the power of man to render those truly miserable, who determine to be otherwise. For five or six years past, I have enjoyed habitually those inward delights which are found in the contemplations of mild, affectionate souls; the raptures, the ecstasies which I sometimes experienced in my lonely walks, were enjoyments which I owed to my persecutors; without them, I should never have found, or known, the treasures contained within myself. In the midst of so much riches, how was it possible to keep a faithful register? Endeavouring to recall so many pleasing reveries, instead of describing, I fall into them again; it is a state which remembrance recalls, and which it would be impossible to relate, did I entirely cease to feel it.

    I experienced the truth of this in those walks which immediately succeeded the project of writing the continuation of my Confessions, particularly in that I am about to relate, and in which, an unforeseen accident broke the thread of my ideas, and gave them for some time a different turn.

    On Thursday, the twenty-fourth of October, 1776, I walked after dinner through the Boulevards, as far as the Rue du Chemin-verd; from whence I gained the heights of Menil-montant, and, pasting through the vineyards and meadows, crossed, as far as Charronne, the lovely manor that separates those two villages; after which, I took a circle, designing to cross the same meadows by another path. While walking through them, I felt that pleasure and interest which agreeable prospects ever give me, frequently stopping to examine plants which I saw among the grass. I perceived two which are seldom found near Paris, though common enough in this place; one was the Pieris Hieracioides, and the other the Bupleurum Falcatum. This discovery amused me for a long time, and ended by my finding a plant still more scarce, especially in a high country; this was the Cerastium Aquaticum, which, notwithstanding the accident that happened the same day, I afterwards found in a book I then had about me, and placed it in my collection. In short, after having observed several plants that were in flower, the appearance and examination of which, though familiar, ever gave me pleasures, by degrees I discontinued my observations, and gave myself up to the no less pleasing impressions they had altogether made upon me. The vintage, which brings so many walkers from the city, had been over a few days; the peasants too, having completed their autumnal labour, had retired till the return of Winter should furnish them with fresh employment; the country was yet green and pleasant, though the trees, partly stripped of their leaves, presented the picture of solitude, and indicated the approach of a more dreary season. From these various objects, resulted a mingled impression of melancholy and pleasure, too analogous to my age and fate, not to enforce the application. I contemplated within myself the decline of an innocent, though unhappy life, my soul still full of lively feelings, and my mind yet graced with some remaining lustre, though already faded with grief, and dried up by sorrow. Lonely and forsaken, I felt the forward frost steal on me; exhausted imagination no longer peopling my solitude with beings formed to delight my heart. I said to myself, with a sigh, what have I to do on earth; I was made for life, and am dying without having enjoyed it; but this was not my fault, and I shall bear to the Author of my being, if not an offering of good works, which I was prevented from performing, at least a tribute of good intentions frustrated, found sentiments, but given without effect, and a patience proof against man’s disdain. I was moved with these reflections, recapitulating the motions of my soul from my early youth, during my riper years, since my sequestration from mankind; and in the course of that long retreat in which I shall conclude my days. I reviewed with complacency all the affections of my heart, all its tender, though blind attachments, those ideas, more consoling than melancholy, with which I had sustained my mind for some years past, and was preparing to recollect every particular sufficiently to describe them, with a pleasure equal to what I felt on experiencing those emotions Having passed my afternoon in these peaceful meditation, I was returning very content with my walk, when I was drawn from my reveries by the following event:

    About six o’clock, as I was on the descent of Menil-montant, just opposite the Galant Jardinier; some people that walked before me having suddenly turned aside, I saw a large Danish dog rushing towards me. He was running with his utmost swiftness before a coach, and had neither time to stop his speed, or turn aside, when he perceived me in his way. I judged that the only means I had to prevent being thrown down, was to take a high leap, so exactly timed, that the dog might pass under my feet. This idea, which struck me with the rapidity of lightning, and which I had neither time to consider or execute, was the last before my accident. I neither felt the blow or fall, nor anything that followed it, till I returned to my senses.

    It was almost night when I came to myself, and found I was supported by some young people, who told me what had happened. The dog not being able to stop his speed, had leaped violently against my legs, and with his size and swiftness had thrown me head foremost with my whole weight on my upper jaw, on a very rough pavement, and what increased the shock, Being on a descent, my head sell lower than my feet.

    The coach the dog belonged to immediately followed, and must have passed over me, if the coach-man had not instantly pulled in his horses. This account I had from those who took me up, and continued supporting me when I returned to my senses. The state I was in at that moment is too singular to pass without being described.

    The night was advancing, I saw the sky, some stars, and a little verdure. This first sensation was delightful; and at that time I felt nothing further. It appeared that I was just awakened into life, and had inspired me with the charm of my new existence every object that surrounded me. Fully occupied with the present moment, I remembered nothing that had passed, had no distinct idea of myself, nor the least notion of what had just happened. I neither knew who I was, nor where I came from; felt no pain, fear, or inquietude and saw my blood run as I would have seen a rivulet, without thinking in any manner that it belonged to me. I felt throughout my whole being the most ravishing calm, to which, on recollection, I can find nothing comparable among our most active and distinguished pleasures.

    They asked me where I lived?—It was impossible for me to resolve them. I enquired, in return, where I was?—They informed me at the Haute Borne; they might as well have told me I was at Mount Atlas. I should have demanded the name of the kingdom, province, and part where I found myself; yet even that would not have been sufficient to restore my recollection. It was necessary I should recall to my memory every recent circumstance, even to walking through the Boulevards, in order to recollect my name and dwelling. A gentleman whom I did not know, and who had the charity to accompany me some part of the way, understanding that I lived at such a distance, advised me to take a coach from the Temple to my own house. I walked very well and lightly, without feeling any wound or pain, though I continued spitting a great deal of blood; but I had cold shiverings, which made my loosened teeth chatter very disagreeably. On my arrival at the Temple, I Imagined that as I had walked without pain, it was better to continue my way on foot, than expose myself to the danger of perishing with cold in a hackney-coach; I therefore walked the half league from the Temple to la rue Platriere, keeping on without difficulty, shunning interruption and coaches, and finding my way as if I had been in perfect health. I arrive at home, open the door by a private spring, go up stairs in the dark, and enter my apartment, without any accident, except the above mentioned fall and its consequences, which I was not yet sensible of.

    The screams of my wise on my appearance, informed I was more hurt than I had apprehended. I passed the night without feeling, or being sensible of my situation; but felt it the next day. My upper lip was slit on the inside, quite up to my nose the skin having prevented a total separation; four of my teeth were forced into the upper jaw, and that part of my face that covered them was much swelled and bruised; my left thumb extremely hurt, the right thumb bruised and swelled very large; the left arm violently sprained; the left knee swelled, and incapable of bending, form a large and painful contusion, but with all this hurt nothing was broken, not even a tooth, which happiness, in such a violent fall, was almost a prodigy.

    This is a true account of my accident, which in a few days was spread all over Paris, but so altered and disfigured, that it was impossible to recognize it. I ought to have expected some such metamorphosis before hand, but so many ridiculous circumstances were added, so many obscure private inferences were drawn, and they were mentioned to me with an air so laughably discreet, that the appearance of so much mystery gave me some uneasiness. I ever hated ambiguities; they naturally inspire a horror, which those I have been surrounded by for so many years have not been able to eradicate. Among the singularities which attended this occurrence, I shall only remark one, which will be sufficient to furnish some idea of the rest:

    Monsieur Lenoir, Lt. General of Police, with whom I had never been acquainted, sent his Secretary to enquire after my health, and make me pressing offers of service, which in my present circumstances, did not appear of any utility or consolation. The Secretary pressed me very warmly to accept them, adding, that if I could not depend on him, I might immediately write to Monsieur Lenoir. The urgency with which he Pressed this, and the air of confidence that accompanied it, made me apprehend that some mystery, was concealed under all this, which I fought in vain to develop. So much was not necessary to alarm me, particularly during the agitated state in which the accident and its attendant fever had put my head. I gave myself up to a thousand uneasy and melancholy conjectures, making commentaries on all that surrounded me, which rather indicates the delirium of a fever than the apathy of a man who no longer interested, himself in anything.

    Another circumstance helped to disturb my tranquillity: Madame D’Ormoy had sought my acquaintance for some years, by many little affected insignificancies without my being able to divine the cause of it; her frequent visits, without object of pleasure, seeming to mark some secret end. She had mentioned the plan of a novel, which she had a mind to write, and present to the Queen: I told her my opinion of female authors, and she gave me to understand that this project was formed for the re-establishment of her fortune, which required protection. This reason was certainly an unanswerable one. She afterwards informed me, that not being able to gain access to the Queen, she had determined to give her book to the Public: there was no longer any necessity to offer advice, which was not required and which she would not have followed had I given it. She proposed showing me her manuscript: I declined seeing it, and accordingly no more was said on the subject.

    One fine day, during my convalescence, I received this book from her, printed, and even bound. In the preface were such gross encomiums on myself, daubed on with such affectation, that I was disgusted; the palpable flattery it contained, never been allied to real good wishes, is what my heart was ever on its guard against.

    Some days after, Madame D’Ormoy paid me a visit attended by her daughter. She informed me that her book had made a great noise, occasioned by a note it contained. In running over the novel, had hardly remarked this note; after her departure I read it over again, examined it, and thought I could plainly discover the motives of her visits, her coaxing, and all the violent praises in the preface, judging they were designed to make the public attribute this note to me, and consequently the blame its author might incur under the circumstances in which it had been published. I had no means of crushing this report, and the impressions it might give rise to, all could possibly do, was not to suffer a repetition of the vain and troublesome visits, either of Madame D’Ormoy or her daughter for which purpose; I wrote the following note: As Rousseau receives no author at his house, he thanks Madame D’Ormoy for all former civilities; but declines in future the honour of her visits.

    She answered this by a very polite letter, but in the style of all those written to me on similar occasions: I had barbarously plunged a dagger in her feeling heart, and; I was to believe, that possessing for me such true and lively sentiments, her death must infallibly be the consequence of this rupture. Thus it is, that an upright, frank behaviour, is made to appear like a fearful crime in the eyes-of the world! And I am convinced I should seem wicked and ferocious in the opinion of my contemporaries, though, they could attribute no other crime to me than not being as false and perfidious as themselves.

    I had already been out several times since my accident, frequently walking even to the Thuileries when, by the visible astonishment of several persons I met, I was convinced something new was stirring with respect to me, but could not possibly conjecture what; till at length, I learned it was currently reported, I had died from the effects of my fall, and this news was propagated so rapidly, and maintained with such obstinacy, that even a fortnight after, I heard it was mentioned at Court as an absolute certainty; and the courier of Avignon (as somebody took the pains to write to me word) in announcing this happy news, had not failed to anticipate that tribute of outrage and indignity which is prepared for my memory, on quitting this world, by a kind of funeral oration. This piece of information was accompanied by a circumstance yet more singular, which I only learned by chance, and could never get any particular account of; this was, that a subscription had actually been opened for printing the collection of manuscripts that should be found at my house. This convinced me that a parcel of fabricated writings were kept ready to be attributed to me after my decease; for to imagine they would print any faithfully that might be found at the time of my death, was a folly that could never enter the imagination of any thinking person, whom fifteen year’s experience had sufficiently enlightened.

    These incidents; which were sudden, and followed by others not less extraordinary, added fresh indignation to my feelings, which I thought already callous, and the dark clouds that perpetually surrounded me, revived the horror they naturally give rise to in my heart. I fatigued myself with conjectures, endeavouring to develop these, to me incomprehensible mysteries. The constant explanation of these enigmas, tended to confirm my former belief, which was, that my fate and reputation having been concerted and determined by the unanimous concurrence of the present generation, could not be over-ruled by any effort of mine, since it would be impossible to transmit any deposit to a future age, without its having to pass in this through hands that would be interested to suppress it.

    But I now carried my conclusions further; the concurrence of so many accidental circumstances, the situation of my most cruel enemies, distinguished as it were by rank and fortune, all that governed the state, all those who have the direction of the public opinion, place-men, everyone in credit, seeming eager to find those who had any secret animosity, and would join the general cry against me; this universal agreement is too extraordinary to be entirely fortuitous. The refusal of one single person to become an accomplice in this persecution, one favourable event on my side, a single unforeseen circumstance, as an obstacle to their designs, might have staggered my opinion; but all dispositions, fatalities, accidents, and revolutions, have contributed to further the attempts of man by so striking a concurrence, that it appears miraculous, and leaves me no room to doubt but their success was established by an immutable decree, and a multitude of observations both on the past and present, confirm me so entirely in this persuasion, that I cannot help, henceforward, regarding that work as one of the secrets impenetrable to human reason, which I hitherto looked on as proceeding, from the wickedness of mankind.

    This idea, far from being melancholy, consoles and tranquilizes my mind, teaching me resignation; though I cannot go so far as St. Augustine, who was comforted even under the idea of damnation, if such should prove to be the will of God. My resignation arises from a more interested source, I must confess, but not less pure, and more worthy, in my opinion, of that perfect Being I adore.

    God is just; it is his will that I should suffer; he knows my innocence: this is the foundation of my confidence, and both my heart and understanding combine to assure me I am not deceived. Let mankind and fate, therefore, pursue their course; let me learn to suffer without murmuring; at length all things will regain their natural order, and sooner or later my turn will be remembered.

    Third Walk
    In Continuing to Learn I Grow Old

    SOLON frequently repeated these words in his old age: in one sense, I may repeat them likewise in mine; but it is a melancholy science which I have acquired in twenty year’s experience, even ignorance is preferable to it. Adversity is, doubtless, a great master, but a master whose lessons are dearly purchased, and sometimes not worth the price we give for them. Besides, before we have obtained sufficient knowledge from such tardy studies, the season to profit by it is over. Youth is the proper time to acquire wisdom, age is the period when we should practice it. I confess that experience ever improves, but can only be of service for the future. Is it not too late to learn how we ought to live, at the very moment we are about to die? Of what utility are the informations so lately and sorrowfully acquired on my own fate, and the contrivances of those who have been the instruments of it? I have only learned to know mankind, that I might feel more acutely the miseries into which they have plunged me: this knowledge, only discovering their snares, without enabling me to avoid them. Why did I not always remain in that thoughtless, but pleasing confidence, which rendered me for so many years, the scorn and plaything of my pretended friends? So far from guarding against their contrivances, I had not the least suspicion of them. I was their dupe and victim, it is true, but I thought myself beloved, and my heart enjoyed the sweets of that friendship with which they had inspired me while I attributed to them an equal portion of it. These pleasing illusions are melancholy truth, which time and reason have unveiled, in making me feel my misfortunes, has also shown me they are without remedy; that resignation is my only resource; that all the experience of age, in my situation, is without present utility, and utterly unprofitable for the future. At our birth we begin that race whose goal is death; of what utility would it be to learn to conduct the chariot with skill, at the very end of our journey? To think of quitting it gracefully, is all that is then necessary. The only proper study for an old man, if any remains for him, is to learn to die, a business least attended to in an advanced age, everything but that being thought of. Old people hold more to life than children, and leave it with more reluctance than young ones; because their cares having been all for this world, they find on quitting it that they have lost their labour. All their hopes, all their wealth, the fruit of so many laborious watchings, must then be relinquished, having thought of gaining nothing during life, which they can carry with them.

    I began this study in good time, and if I did not profit by my reflections, it was not for want of having made, or well considered the weight of them. Thrown at an early age into the storms of life, I learned by experience that I was not formed for this world, and should never attain that condition which my heart felt the necessity of. Despairing, therefore, to find happiness among mankind, my ardent imagination leaped over that space of my existence which I had yet scarcely entered on, as over a strange inhospitable soil, wishing to fix my abode in a more tranquil asylum.

    This sentiment, nurtured by education from my infancy, and strengthened during my whole life by that inexhaustible train of sorrows and misfortunes which have accompanied it, has called me at all times to the consideration of the nature and destination of my being with more attention and care than I have observed in any other person. I have seen many who philosophize more learnedly than myself, but their philosophy (to use the expression) is foreign to themselves. Wishing to appear wiser than others, they examine the arrangement of the world, as they would study some complicated machine through mere curiosity, contemplating human nature, that they may speak of it learnedly, but without any thought of self improvement; still labouring to instruct others, without enlightening themselves. Some of these determine to write a book, no matter what, provided it is well received. When wrote and published, its contents interest the author no longer, except by a wish to have others adopt the opinions it inculcates, and a resolution to defend them in case of an attack; but he entertains no idea of using it for his own improvement, or embarrassing himself whether these opinions are true or false, provided no one refuses them. On the contrary, whatever I desired to learn was for nay own information, and not to instruct others. I have ever been persuaded that before we set tip for teachers, we should acquire a competent knowledge of ourselves, and of all the studies I have pursued, while surrounded by the bustle of the world, there is none I should not equally have applied to, had I been confined to a desert isle for the rest of my days. What we ought to do depends, greatly on what we ought to believe, and in all that does not relate to the immediate calls of nature, our opinions are the rule of our actions. Governed by these principles, which were ever mine, I long and repeatedly sought to regulate the enjoyment of my life, to discover its real allotment, and was, at length, consoled for my want of aptitude in conducting myself skilfully in this world, on feeling it; is a science we should not endeavour to attain.

    Born in a family where morality and piety were conspicuous, afterwards brought up by a minister remarkable for wisdom and religion, I imbibed principles, maxims, some will say prejudices, which have never forsaken me. Given up to my own government, while yet a child, allured by caresses, seduced by vanity, and constrained by necessity, I became a Catholic, but still remained a Christian. Confirmed in time by habit, my heart was sincerely attached to my new religion the instructions and example of Madame de Warrens gave stability to this attachment, the rural solitude in which I passed the flower of my youth, the study of good books, to which I applied myself, strengthened these natural propensities and affectionate dispositions, rendering me religious almost after the manner of Fenelon. Placed in a calm retreat, meditation, the study of Nature, the contemplation of the universe, incessantly carries the thoughts of a recluse, towards the Author of all these objects, prompting him to search with pleasing inquietude the final destination of what he sees, and the source of his feelings. Afterwards, when my destiny again threw me in the torrent of the world, I recognized nothing that could delight my heart for a single moment. The regret of my peaceful leisures continually pursued me, and mingled indifference and disgust with every pleasure that was within my reach, and with every pursuit that could conduct me to riches or honour. Irresolute in my unsatisfactory wishes, I hoped little, obtained less, and felt, in the allurements of prosperity, that even should I obtain all I believed myself in search of I should not find that happiness my heart so ardently sought after, without entertaining any precise, idea of its object. Thus, everything contributed to detach my affections from this world, even before misfortunes had entirely estranged me from it. To the age of forty I continued floating between indigence and riches, wisdom and folly, full of habitual failings, without any vicious inclinations; living at hazard, without being guided by principles, or regulated by reason; wavering in my duties, without despising them, but frequently without comprehending their tendency.

    From my youth, I had fixed on the age of forty as the period of my efforts and pretensions of every kind, fully resolved, that when I should attain that age, in whatever situation I might find myself, I would contentedly remain there for the rest of my life, living from day to day, without care for my future subsistence. When that period arrived, I executed my resolution without regret; and though my fortune seemed inclined to take a more favourable turn, relinquished it, not only without pain, but even with a sensible satisfaction. In renouncing every false hope and allurement, I delivered myself up to that calm repose which was ever my predominant taste, the most durable of my inclinations. I gave up the world and its vanities, and renounced all superfluous ornaments, no longer wore a sword, watch, white stockings, or lace, confining myself to a good cloth suit, with a plain wig, and what was still better, rooted, from my heart, those covetings and desires which stamped a value on those objects. I gave up the situation I then occupied, for which I felt Nature: had not designed me, and; set about copying music at so much a page, and employment always had a decided inclination for.

    I did not confine my reform to exteriors. I was sensible that these privations required others, more difficult, doubtless, but far more necessary, and resolving not to do my work by halves, undertook: to submit my interior to a strict examination, which might reduce it to that state I should wish to find it in at my death.

    A remarkable resolution which had lately taken place in me, a new moral world which began to present itself, the unreasonable judgment of mankind, which (without foreseeing how much I should become its victim) I began to feel the absurdity of, the increasing necessity of a more substantial good than literary fame, which inclination had securely reached me before I felt myself disgusted with it, the desire to pursue, for the remainder of my life, a more salutary course than that which had employed the most valuable part of it; in a word, every consideration tended to point out the immediate necessity of this reform, which I had long felt the want of, I undertook it, therefore, and spared nothing that depended on me to render the execution of my enterprise effectual.

    It is from this epoch, that I may date an entire renunciation of the world, and an increased desire for solitude, which has never since forsaken me. The work I had resolved on could not be accomplished without an absolute retreat; it required long and uninterrupted meditations, which the tumult of society would not admit; this forced me to adopt, for some time, a different manner of life, and presently I so well relished its enjoyments, that I never discontinued it since, except at intervals and by constraint, ever returning to it again, then opportunity offered, with redoubled affection; and, in the sequel, when mankind had rendered this sequestration necessary, I found that what they supposed would have rendered me miserable, turned out my greatest happiness, which I could not otherwise have procured myself.

    I entered on the work I had resolved-to undertake with a zeal proportioned to its importance, and the necessity I felt to perfect it. At that time I lived, I lived among modern philosophers, who bear little; resemblance to the ancients; these, instead of removing doubts or fixing irresolutions, presently staggered all those certitudes which I thought it necessary to obtain confirmation of; for your ardent missionaries of atheism, and furious dogmatists, cannot endure those who differ from themselves in the most trifling particular. I frequently defended my opinion weakly, partly from a dislike to disputes, and partly for want of talents to maintain them; but I never adopted their distressing doctrines; and this resistance, to intolerant minds, who, besides, had private views to answer, was not one of the least causes of their animosity.

    They had not prevailed on me to adopt their sentiments, but they had rendered me uneasy in my own: their arguments had staggered, but not convinced me I could not think of any pertinent answers, but I felt their objections were not unanswerable; I accused myself less of error than ineptitude, and my feelings, disputed much better than my reason.

    At length, I said, shall I forever: suffer myself to be tossed about by the sophism of these plausible reasoners, when I am not even certain that they believe what they preach to others with so much earnestness? Those passions which govern their opinions, self-interest, which demands you should believe this or that, render it impossible to penetrate their true sentiments. Should we seek for the simplicity of truth in the leaders of a party? Their philosophy is designed for others, I must have one of my own: let me seek it diligently while it is yet time that I may possess a fixed rule for the conduct of my latter days. I am now in a mature age, possessed of all the powers of my understanding, already I approach the decline; if I wait longer, my intellectual faculties will have lost their activity, and my tardy deliberations may be less useful than they promise to be at this time: I will, therefore, seize the present moment; it is the epoch of my external and mental reform; let me ultimately fix my opinions and principles, remaining for the residue of my life, what mature deliberation shall convince me I ought to be.

    I executed this project slowly, and at different times, but with as much application and care as I was capable of employing, being fully persuaded that the repose of my life and future happiness depended on it. At first, I found myself in such a labyrinth of embarrassments, difficulties, objections, and obscurity, that I was tempted twenty, times over to abandon all, to renounce my vain researches, and level my deliberations to the rules of common prudence, without searching further into those principles it was so much labour to develop; but this prudence was foreign to my disposition, and I felt myself no more able to adopt it, than I should have been to profit by its admonitions; labouring to acquire it, therefore, was failing over a stormy sea without rudder or compass, in search of a light-house, which, when found, directed to no port.

    I persisted, notwithstanding every discouragement: for the first time in my life, I possessed courage, and to that I am indebted for having been able to sustain the horrible destiny which from that, period began to envelope me, without my entertaining the least idea of its approach. After the most ardent and sincere researches that were ever undertaken, perhaps, by one mortal, I determined on those sentiments for the residue of my life, which appeared reasonable and necessary, and, if I have been mistaken in the result, have at least the consolation of knowing, that my errors cannot be imputed to me as a crime, since I used my utmost efforts to guard against mistakes. I make no doubt but the prejudices of childhood, and the secret wishes of my heart, may have inclined the balance to that side which procured me most consolation; for is it difficult to defend our belief from what we ardently desire. Who can doubt, but being interested to admit or reject particular notions of a future state, determines the belief of the major part of mankind, through the medium of their hopes and fears? These, I allow, might fascinate my judgment, but not render my faith less sincere, for I examined cautiously, and feared to be mistaken in every particular. If our whole term of existence is confined to this life, it was expedient for me to know this, that I might take my measures accordingly, while some part of my being remained, and before I was completely duped; but what I had most to fear, in my present undertaking, was, venturing the everlasting state of my soul for the sake of temporal enjoyments, which in my opinion, were never very desirable.

    I confess that I did not answer to my own satisfaction all the difficulties that had embarrassed me, and which our philosophers had so often thundered in my ears; but being determined to decide on points which human understanding has so little direction to, and finding on all hands impenetrable mysteries and unanswerable objections, I adopted in each question, such sentiments as appeared to me best established, and most conformable to reason, without stopping at those objections which I could not resolve, and which I knew were opposed by others, not less powerful, in the opposite system. A dogmatical method of treating these subjects is only conformable to a spirit of imposition; meantime, it is necessary to have a belief of one’s own, and to select it with all possible maturity of judgment. If, in spite of these precautions, we yet fall into error, we cannot in justice be pronounced culpable, since we have not erred either wilfully or carelessly. This was the immovable principle which I established as the basis of my security.

    The result of my wearisome researches were nearly those opinions which I have since put together in the Confession of Faith of my Savoyard Vicar, a work that has been unworthily profaned by the present generation, but which may one day cause a revolution in the opinions of mankind, if good sense and truth should ever revive among them.

    From this time, easy in the principles I had adopted, after such long and painful meditation, I have made them the fixed rule of my conduct and belief, without perplexing myself, either with those objections I cannot resolve, or those I could not foresee, and which, presenting themselves from time to time, have sometimes staggered, but never overthrown me. I have ever said, these are but metaphysical subtleties, arguments which should have no weight against found principles, adopted by reason, confirmed by the feelings of my heart, and bearing the seal of inward approbation, by the silence and subjection of the passions. In these concerns, so superior to human understanding, shall one objection, which I cannot resolve, overthrow a body of doctrine so well constructed, so firmly connected, composed with so much meditation and care, so well appropriated to my understanding, my heart, my whole being, and reinforced by that, internal satisfaction which I feel wanting in all others? No vain delusive arguments shall ever; destroy that affinity which I perceive between my immortal nature, and the construction of this world, with the exact order which reigns therein. I find in the correspondent and moral order of things, from whence the system I have adopted results, those very resources which I stand in need of to support the miseries of life. In any other system I should live without comfort, and die without hope, being the most miserable of all creatures; let me then adhere to that opinion which is alone sufficient to make me happy, in spite of fortune or mankind.

    This deliberation, and the conclusion I drew from it, seemed dictated by reason itself, as a preparation for the destiny that was approaching, which might enable me to sustain it. What would have been my fate, or what would yet become of me, among the dreadful trials with which I have been surrounded, and in the incredible situation to which I am reduced for the rest of my life, if without asylum from my implacable persecutors, indemnification for the scandals which have been heaped on me by the world, or hope of ever obtaining that justice I feel due to me, I saw myself given up without future hope to the most horrible fate a mortal can possibly experience? While tranquil in my innocence I pictured nothing but affection and benevolence among mankind, my believing, confident heart was laid open to them as to friends and brothers; meanwhile, the traitors silently entangled me in nets forged at the bottom of Hell. Surprised by the most unforeseen of all misfortunes, the most terrible for a feeling haughty soul, dragged into the snare without knowing why, or to what end, I plunged into an abyss of ignominy, surrounded by fearful obscurity, through which I could discover nothing but distressing objects. On the first surprise, I was overwhelmed, and should never have recovered from the fit of horror these unforeseen misfortunes plunged me into, had I not already, laid up a magazine of strength, which served to raise me from my fall.

    It was not until after years of agitation, that recovering my spirits, and beginning to return to myself, I felt the full value of those resources I had procured for my moments of adversity; when, deciding on all those things which I saw it necessary to form a judgment of, I saw, in comparing my maxims with my situation, that I gave infinitely more importance to the opinions of men, and the little wants of this transitory existence, than, they deserved; since this life, being but a state of probation, it is immaterial what kind of trials we experienced in it, provided they produced the designed effect; consequently, the greater and more multiplied our afflictions are, the more meritorious it is to sustain them properly. The most acute troubles lose their edge with those who consider the great and sure reward that attends them; and the certainty of obtaining this recompense, was the principal fruit I had gathered from my former meditation.

    It is true, that in the midst of those numberless outrages, and unbounded indignities, which overwhelmed me from all parts, some intervals of uneasiness and doubt, from time to time, shook my hopes, and disturbed my tranquillity. The powerful objections, which I could not resolve, during these moments of despondency, presented themselves to my mind with redoubled strength, and added to the hopelessness of my situation, when weighed down with my destiny, I was ready to give up all for lost. Frequently, new arguments which I heard, took hold of my thoughts, and strengthened those that already tormented me.—”Alas!” said I, my heart overwhelmed with grief, “what shall save me from utter despair, if, in the darkness of my fate, I contemplate only as chimeras those consolations which my reason had collected? If destroying thus, its own work, it strikes away the prop of hope and confidence it had procured me in adversity, what support have I but those illusions which amuse myself alone? The whole present generation viewing only errors and prejudices in what I singly adopt, finding truth and evidence in a contrary system, and appearing scarce able to believe that I am sincere in my profession of them; while giving into these opinions with my utmost belief, I find insurmountable difficulties, which yet do not prevent me from persisting in them. Am I, then, alone wife and enlightened among mankind? To be persuaded that things are thus, is it sufficient that they accord; with my ideas, and that I find this order of them convenient? Can I derive a firm confidence from appearances, which have no solidity for the rest of mankind, and which would appear delusive even to myself if my heart did not support my reason? Ought I not rather to have sought my persecutors with equal weapons, by adopting their maxims, than to depend on delusions of my own, and become a prey to their attempts, without a single effort to replace them? I think myself prudent, while, perhaps, I am but the dupe, victim, and martyr of a vain, error.”

    How many times, in these moments of doubt and uncertainty, have I been ready to abandon, myself to despair! and had I ever passed a month in that state, it would have been all over with me in this world; but their attacks, though frequent, were short, and though even yet I am not entirely delivered from them, they have become so scarce and momentary, that they have not even strength to interrupt my felicity, being light inquietudes, which, no longer affect my soul, any more than the falling of a feather into a river, can affect its course.

    I am convinced that re-considering those points which I had formerly concluded on, is supposing myself to possess more information, more discernment, or a greater degree of zeal, than I employed at the time these decisions were made; but I am persuaded this is not the case, and no substantial reason can induce me to prefer those opinions, which while overwhelmed with despair served only to augment my misery, to sentiments adopted in the vigour of my age, in the full maturity of my understanding, after the most serious examination, and at a period when the serenity of my life left no predominant interest but the investigation of truth. Now that no heart is wrung with distress, my soul weighed down by cares, my imagination bewildered, my brain perplexed by the multitude of distressing mysteries which surround me; now when every faculty, enfeebled by age and sufferings, have lost their vigour, shall foolishly cast away those resources I had so carefully procured, giving more confidence to the declining state of my intellects, in order to render myself unavailingly miserable, than to my reason, when possessing all its vigour, it endeavoured to guard me against the anguish of unmerited misfortunes? No; I am neither wiser, better instructed, nor more sincere than when I decided these important questions. I was not then unconscious of those difficulties which now perplex me, they were then surmounted, and if at present some new ones start up, which I was not then aware of, they are the sophisms of subtle metaphysicians, which should not be permitted to invalidate those eternal truths which have been admitted at all times, and by all the sages, which are acknowledged by all nations, and are engraven on the human hearten characters indelible. I knew when meditating on these subjects, that human reason, circumscribed by the senses, could not comprehend them in their full extent; I contented myself, therefore, with that evidence that was within my reach, without attempting what was beyond it: this conclusion was reasonable, and I adhere to it with the full approbation of my heart and reason. On what evidence should I renounce it, which might not be combated by still more forcible arguments to continue, firm in my attachment? What dangers do I find in this adherence? What advantages would accrue from a change? That morality without root or produce which they pompously display in some of their writings, or theatrical representations, without an idea of its producing any effect on the heart or understanding; or rather that secret and crude morality, the inferior doctrine of all their adherents, to which the former serves as a mask, which they only follow in their outward conduct, and have so dexterously made use of with regard to myself; this hostile morality, is of no use for defence, being good for nothing but attack. Of what use, then, would it be to me, in the condition I am reduced to? Innocence is the only support I depend on in my sufferings, how much more wretched then should I make myself, if relinquishing this last, this powerful resource, I substituted wickedness in its place? Could I hope to rival them in the art of mischief? And even could I attain to it, what consolation should I derive from the retribution I might deal them! I should forfeit my own esteem and gain nothing in return.

    Reasoning thus with myself, I so far established my principles, as to have them shaken no longer by captious arguments, or unanswerable objections, by difficulties beyond my reach and perhaps beyond the reach of human reason. Resting my belief on the most solid basis I could possibly establish for it, I accustomed myself to repose pose so securely under the shadow of my conscience, that no contradictory arguments, either ancient or modern, could have power for a single instant to shake or trouble my repose. Declined into a languor and inactivity of understanding, I have even forgot the evidences and maxims on which my belief was founded, but I shall never forget the conclusions, which with the approbation of my reason and conscience, I drew from them, and to this point I will adhere. Let all the philosophers of the universe unite to explode these principles, I will continue firm for the rest of my life, in every particular to the decisions of that time, when I was more able than I now am of choosing wisely.

    Tranquil in these dispositions, together with self approbation, I find them supply that hope and those consolations, I stand so much in need of in my present situation. It is impossible that a solitude so complete, permanent, and distressing in itself, the perpetually active animosity of the whole present generation, and the indignities it is perpetually loading me with, should not sometimes depress my spirits, that my hope should not be shaken, and that discouraging doubts should not arise at times to trouble my soul and sill it with distress; but it is then, when incapable of those exertions which would be necessary to give me assurance, that I recall my former resolutions; it is then that the care, attention, and sincerity of heart, with which I formed them, return to my remembrance, and bring back my fleeting hopes.

    Thus confined to the contracted sphere of my former acquisitions, I have not, like Solon, the happiness of gaining some piece of information every day of my old age, since I find it necessary to guard against the dangerous pride of endeavouring to acquire that knowledge I formerly found beyond my comprehension; but there remain few acquisitions to hope for on the side of useful knowledge, many important ones remain on the side of those virtues necessary in my situation. This is the proper season to enrich and ornament my soul with those acquirements she may carry with her, when delivered from this mortal body, which clouds every object, and viewing the truth without a veil, she will perceive the poverty and insufficiency of all that knowledge, which our learned pedants are so vain of, and will lament those moments as lost in this life, when she endeavoured to obtain it; but patience, gentleness, resignation, and impartial justice, are possessions she will carry with her; with these we may enrich ourselves incessantly, without fearing that death should rob us of our acquisitions, or diminish their value. It is to this invaluable study alone that I will consecrate the remainder of my old age, happy if by the knowledge of myself I can attain to leave life, not better, for that is impossible, but more virtuous than I entered it.

    Fourth Walk
    AMONG the small number of books I yet continue to read, the works of Plutarch are what I am most attached to, and profit most by. This was the first study of my childhood, will be the last of my old age, and is almost the only author that I never read without reaping some advantage. Two days ago I read in his moral works, the treatise, How to profit by our Enemies. The same day, while ranging some papers which had been sent me by different author I met with one of the journals of the Abbé Rosier, to which he had put these words, as a motto, Vitam vero impendent! Rosier. Too well acquainted with the turns of these gentlemen to be mistaken in this, I was convinced he meant to convey a cruel piece of irony under this appearance of politeness? but on what could it be founded? What reason was there for this sarcasm? What occasion could I have given him? Wishing to practice the lessons of the good Plutarch, I resolved to examine myself during my next day’s walk on the article of lying, being well confirmed in the opinion I had for some time past entertained, that the know thyself, of the temple of Delphos, was not a point so easily attained as I had imagined in my Confessions.

    The next day, having begun my walk in order to fulfil this design, the first idea that presented itself to my imagination, was the remembrance of a dreadful untruth, advanced in my early youth, the recollection of which has troubled my whole life, and reaches even to my old age, grieving that heart already rent by so many sorrows. This lie, which was a great crime in itself, was probably more terrible in its effects, which I have ever remained ignorant of, but which remorse has pictured in the most distressing colours; aid yet, were my dispositions at the time I committed this crime to be considered, it could only be called false shame; since, far from being occasioned by a design to injure her who was the victim of it, I can vow, in the light of Heaven, that at the very moment this invincible shame rent it from my lips, I would joyfully have given every drop of my blood, to have turned all the evil of it on myself. It was a delirium which I cannot explain, otherwise than by saying (what I am persuaded was the fact) that my natural timidity had mastered, during that moment, every other feeling of my soul.

    The remembrance of this unhappy crime, and the inextinguishable and bitter remorse which has followed it, have inspired me with a horror and detection for lying, which effectually secured me, ever after, from that vice. When I first chose my motto as an author, I was persuaded it was what I merited, and I made no doubt but I should find myself worthy of it, when, on the insinuation of the Abbé Rosier set about a more serious re-examination of my conduct.

    Proceeding in this review with the utmost circumspection, I was greatly surprised at the number of things I had mentioned as truths, which were purely of my own invention, at the very time, when proud of my love of truth, I sacrificed to it my safety, interest, and person, with an impartiality, perhaps, without example.

    What surprised me most, on the recollection of these inventions, was to find I had never experienced any real repentance on that account I, in whom the horror of falsehood is so great, that I know nothing my heart so much detests; I, who have braved sufferings, which I could easily have evaded by a lie, by what unaccountable extravagance of disposition could I be guilty of this folly for mere pastime, without any advantage in view, and by what inconceivable contradiction did I escape feeling the least regret on that account, while the remorse of a single untruth has not ceased to afflict me for fifty years? I was never hardened in my crimes; moral instinct has ever conducted me right; my conscience has ever maintained its primitive integrity, and even had it sometimes declined, and faded with my interest, how, maintaining all its uprightness on those occasions, where man, hurried away by his passions, might at least plead human weakness as an excuse, should it sleep over indifferent transactions, where vice had nothing to excuse it? I was convinced, that on the solution of this problem, depended the justice of that decision I had to pronounce in this particular on myself, and after having examined it thoroughly, I arrived, by the following means, at a conclusion:

    I remembered to have read, in some philosophical treatise, that concealing a truth we ought to divulge is to lie: It naturally follows, from this definition, that to conceal a truth we ought not to divulge, is not to lie. But he, who not being bound to speak the truth, advances the contrary, does he lie? According to the former definition it cannot properly be said he does, for if we give counterfeit money to a man we are not indebted to, we may deceive him, it is true, we do not rob him.

    On these premises two questions present themselves for examination, and both of great importance; first, on what occasions we ought to speak the truth, since we are not always bound to a declaration of it? and, secondly, whether there are situations in which we may deceive innocently? This latter question is, I know, already copiously decided on: negatively, in books, where the most austere morality costs the author nothing; affirmatively, in society, where the morality of books passes for an impracticable jargon: leaving, therefore, these two authorities, let me endeavour, from my own principles, at an attempt to resolve these questions for myself.

    Abstract and universal truth is the most precious of all things. Without her, man would be blind; she is the eye of reason; it is by her he is taught to conduct himself, and arrive at what he ought to be, to perform his duty, and accomplish the end of his creation. Particular and individual truth, does not always confer a benefit, it is sometimes an evil, and frequently indifferent. The things a man should be acquainted with, the knowledge of which are necessary to his happiness, are not, perhaps, very numerous; but in whatever number they may be, they are his property, and he has an undoubted right to claim them wherever they may be found, and no one can keep him from the possession of them, without being guilty of the most unjustifiable of all thefts, since they are the common right of all, and a communication deprives no one of his acquisitions.

    As to those truths which are of no kind of utility, either for instruction or practice, how can they become a debt? for since property is only founded on utility, where there is no possible advantage to be derived there can be no claim. An estate, though barren, may be demanded, because, at least, it may serve to build a habitation on, but an idle tale, indifferent in every particular, whether true or false, cannot be of consequence to anyone. In the moral order of things nothing is useless, any more than in the physical. Nothing can become a debt that is not of some possible utility; consequently that truth may become so, it must be that species of it, by which justice might be affected; and it is profaning the sacred name of truth, to apply it to those frivolous objects, whose existence is utterly indifferent to everyone, and the knowledge of which is absolutely unavailing. Truth, then, divested of all possible utility, cannot become a debt, and, consequently, he who is silent, or disguises it, in such circumstances does not lie.

    But can truths, however trivial they may appear, be utterly without use? This is another question, that remains to be discussed, which we will return to presently; at present, let us pass to the second question.

    To leave unsaid that which is true, and to speak that which is false, are two things very different in themselves, but which, notwithstanding, frequently produces the same effect. In every case where the truth is indifferent, the opposite error must be equally so; from whence it follows, by a parity of reasoning, that he who deceives in advancing a falsehood, is not more unjust than he who deceives by not declaring the truth. In respect to unmeaning truth, error is not worse than ignorance; for example, whether I believe the sand at the bottom of the sea to be white or red, is of no more service than to be ignorant what colour it is. How can he be unjust that injures no one, since injustice consists in wrong done to our neighbour?

    But these questions, decided in this summary manner, could not yet furnish me with any certain rule for my practice, without many preliminary examinations, which would be necessary, in order to apply them with precision in all possible exigences that might present themselves; for if the obligation to speak truth is only founded on its utility, how halt I become a competent judge of this expediency? Very frequently the